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Configuring APPN over TCP/IP on the AS/400

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Do you remember what you were working on when suddenly everything you read in every trade publication focused on the Internet? How about when the new buzzwords were client/server? Fortunately for those of us who rely on the AS/400 to run our businesses and keep us competitive, IBM had already started opening up the AS/400 to participate in these new arenas. Anyone who worked on the older midrange equipment remembers an extremely rigid and closed system. Everything was proprietary, and trying to communicate with different hardware could be quite an undertaking. One of the first steps toward creating a more open system was the PC emulation card. It was great! Now you could attach something other than a dumb terminal to your hardware. Now you could download data from your S/34 or S/36 and give it to your users in Lotus 1-2-3 to manipulate in any way they desired.

Today’s AS/400 is a much more open system compared to older midrange hardware. You have the options of using SNA or TCP/IP when communicating with local or remote hardware.

The introduction of the AnyNet protocol was another advancement in AS/400 communications. AnyNet/400 has been included in OS/400 since V3R1, and it provides support for Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC) over TCP/IP. With APPC over TCP/IP, applications written to communicate with the SNA protocol can run over a TCP/IP network.

The sockets over SNA support allows sockets application programs to communicate between systems in an SNA network. Both systems running the sockets application programs must have sockets over SNA support, unless there is an AnyNet gateway between them. With an AnyNet gateway, such as AnyNet/2 Sockets over SNA Gateway, between an SNA and a TCP/IP network, sockets application programs running on systems with sockets over SNA support can communicate with sockets application programs running on systems in the TCP/IP network. Several products are available to accomplish this task. A 1997 white paper published by Polaris Communications (now Crossroads Systems Inc.) and Microsoft is available at www.polariscomm.com/white/tcpip_sna.htm.

So How Can AnyNet Help Me?


One of the main advantages of AnyNet is that it allows machines on different hardware platforms to connect without a change in application software. AnyNet also allows you to use TCP/IP to communicate between AS/400s with the SNA configuration that you might already have set up. For example, if your AS/400s communicate using leased lines, and you want to install a WAN using a frame relay connection, AnyNet could be useful. Another example might be if you use Distributed Data Management (DDM) to perform file operations on remote systems. Prior to V4R4, DDM files could not be created using a TCP/IP address.

You could configure your routers to pass SNA traffic, but because SNA continuously polls to assure the connection is still alive, using SNA would cause unnecessary traffic on the WAN. If you have several AS/400s connected or a lot of users passing through from one machine to another, this traffic could add up. Instead, configure your connections on the AS/400 the same way you would for a leased line, but then configure AnyNet. This allows the AS/400 to communicate over the WAN using TCP/IP. You don’t have to buy special routers that perform SNA spoofing, which traps the polling by the AS/400 and responds without sending the traffic over the WAN. You also do not have to configure your routers to pass SNA traffic. “Talking Shop: SNA and TCP/IP: An Alliance Worth Considering,” (MC, September 1999) discusses the advantages of using both TCP/IP and SNA.

Now I will walk you through the steps required to configure AnyNet on the AS/400. The first requirement for using AnyNet is that your AS/400 has either an Ethernet or Token-Ring card attaching it to your network. Line, controller, and device descriptions must also be configured and active. To create the line and controller descriptions, you first need to determine the communication resource name assigned to the Ethernet or Token- Ring card. Use the Work with Hardware Resources (WRKHDWRSC) command with the CMN parameter as shown: WRKHDWRSC *CMN. This command will display a screen that lists the resource name, status, type of resource, and a text description. An Ethernet card will have two resources listed. Record the resource name listed with the text of Ethernet port. For this example, assume the resource name is CMN02. Use the following command to create the line description:

CRTLINETH LIND(ETHERLINE) RSRCNAME(CMN02) LINESPEED(100M) LINKSPEED(100M).

In this example, a 100 Mb Ethernet card is being used. If your card is 10 Mb, change the linespeed and link speed to 10 MB. At this point, you can either create the controller description or let the controller autocreate. The default for the Create Line Description (Ethernet) (CRTLINETH) command is to autocreate the controller. To manually create the Ethernet controller and device descriptions, use the following commands:

CRTCTLNET CTLD(ETHERCTL) LINE(ETHERLINE)
CRTDEVNET DEVD(EHTERDEV) TYPE(*TCPIP) CTL(ETHERCTL)

You also need the licensed program TCP/IP Connectivity Utilities for AS/400 (5763TC1 for V3R2 or 576TC1 for V4R1) and above. This product is free and ships with OS/400. You need a basic knowledge of TCP/IP and networking, as well as familiarity with networking terminology. Before adding the necessary entries to enable APPC over TCP/IP, you must have TCP/IP configured and active on the AS/400. You can use the OS/400 TCP/IP Configuration and Reference V4R4 manual to assist with this task. You can also refer to “SYSOP: AS/400 TCP/IP Basic Setup and Services,” MC, April 2000 and “Configuring Your AS/400 to Use TCP/IP,” MC, October 1997.

A Brief Overview


TCP/IP requires an association between the IP address and the host name assigned to the remote system. These associations are entered into the host table on the AS/400. APPC over TCP/IP uses a host name, but it must be entered in a long format with the network ID and the SNA domain name suffix. You must also create configuration lists that contain information about the local and remote systems. You must have a local and a remote location list on each system. And, you must create an AnyNet controller description on each AS/400. The parameters contained in the remote location list on the source system must be matched or paired with the parameters in the local location list on the remote system. These matching parameters are similar to the exchange identifier and station addresses that must be specified when creating an SDLC line description on the AS/400.

The parameters are matched for security purposes. Figure 1 shows the matching parameter list from the OS/400 Communications Configuration V4R1 manual.

Matching Parameters in Detail

Working from the matching parameter list in Figure 1 is the easiest way to set up and configure AnyNet. In this example, two AS/400s are being configured. One system is named Oslo, and the other is named Geneva. This name can be, but is not required to be, the system name as shown in the Display Network Attributes (DSPNETA) command.

The first section of the matching parameter list relates to the network attributes. To use AnyNet, the network attribute ALWANYNET must be set to YES. I recommend changing this first. If you create the AnyNet controller and vary it on before changing the ALWANYNET network attribute, you need to vary the controller off, change the setting, and then vary the controller back on. To configure AnyNet, either sign on as QSECOFR, or use an equivalent profile. You need *ALLOBJ and *IOSYSCFG authority. Use the following command to set the ALWANYNET attribute to yes: CHGNETA ALWANYNET(*YES). Retrieve the next two parameters, local location name (LCLLOCNAME) and local network ID (LCLNETID), using the DSPNETA command. The default network ID is APPN, but if you changed the network ID on your system, you need to retrieve it from the network attributes.

The next section of the list shows the entries required in the AS/400 host table. If you currently use TCP/IP on your AS/400, you may already have entries in the host table. You can associate up to four host names with each IP address in the AS/400 host table. I like to configure two entries for each IP address. I set the first entry as the system name, and the second entry is the long name required for AnyNet communications. The long name for AnyNet consists of three parts: the location name, the network ID, and the SNA suffix. These must be in the form system.appn.sna.ibm.com. The system name is the name you assign to the remote system and must be entered in the remote location list, which I will discuss later in detail. APPN is the local network ID from the network attributes. Sna.ibm.com is the SNA domain suffix required for AnyNet communications. It must be entered in this format. If, for some reason, it is absolutely necessary to change this, there are instructions in the Client Access for Windows 95/NT Setup V3R2M0 manual. I do not recommend changing this because the suffix is coded into the AS/400 operating system.

If you already have an entry in the host table, you cannot add another entry for the same IP address. To change the entry, use the Configure TCP/IP (CFGTCP) command. Then use option 10 from the CFGTCP menu and option 2 to change the host table entry to add the long host name.

If you do not have an entry in the host table, you can use the following command to add an entry for the Geneva system.

ADDTCPHTE INTNETADR(‘9.5.5.2’) HOSTNAME((GENEVA) +
(GENEVA.APPN.SNA.IBM.COM))


An entry must be made in the host table in this format for every remote AS/400 or PC you want to communicate with using AnyNet.

Creating the APPC Controller

I don’t really like the approach to creating the controller that is outlined in the table. In Figure 1, the remote control point name (RMTCPNAME) is different on both systems. The Oslo system is TCPIP1 and the Geneva system is TCPIP2. The remote control point ID in the controller matches up with the remote control point ID that is entered in the Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN) remote location list. For every control point name you specify, you are required to create an APPC controller. If the Oslo system was able to connect with three systems with different control point names specified, you would need three APPC controllers on the Oslo system, because the remote control point ID is entered when the controller is created. If you had many systems, each able to connect to the other, you would end up with a spider web effect. I like to use one control point name for every system I connect to. This allows me to create an identical controller on each system, and it doesn’t matter which system I am connecting with because the remote control point name is always the same. To create the AnyNet controller, you could use the following command.

CRTCTLAPPC CTLD(ANYNETCTL) +
LINKTYPE(*ANYNW) RMTCPNAME(RMTCP)

You may name the controller anything you like, up to 10 characters. In this example, I used the name ANYNETCTL. The same is true for the remote control point name, which can be up to eight characters. By using the same remote control point name, you can then create the controller the same way on each of your AS/400 systems. When AnyNet was first announced, it was suggested that you use a different control point name for each system, but I have been using the same control point name for more than four years with no problems.

The final section of the matching parameter table describes the entries in the local and remote configuration lists. The local location list on the AS/400 defines the local system. The local location name entered in the local location list must also be entered in the local location field of the remote location list. The local location list must be named QAPPNLCL in library QSYS, and the remote location list must be named QAPPNRMT in library QSYS. There can be only one local location and one remote location list on the system. The APPN Support V4R2 reference manual describes how to create the local and remote location lists in detail in Chapter 4.

Use the Work with Configuration Lists (WRKCFGL) command to create or modify the remote and local location lists. If the location lists have not been created on your system, take option 1 to create it and then press enter. You are then required to enter the configuration list type. Use *APPNLCL for the local location and *APPNRMT for the remote location. You may key the text description for each list if you desire.

Figure 2 illustrates the local location list set up for the Oslo system. The Geneva system has a local location name of Geneva. You can have 476 local location names if you want, although only one is required.

Figure 3 shows how the remote location list is set up on the Oslo system to connect to systems Geneva, Shanghai, and Sydney. I entered RMTCP for the remote control point name because I created my AnyNet controller using RMTCP for the remote control point name. You can enter up to 1,898 remote locations in the remote location list.

Testing Your Connections

After you configure AnyNet on both systems, you can test your connections. You need access to all of the systems you are trying to connect to. First, make sure the AnyNet controller you created is varied on. I like to start by using the ping command to make sure


the destination can be reached. Type ping followed by the long host name, which is entered in the host table. For example, if you wanted to test the connection from the Oslo 400 to the Geneva 400, enter PING GENEVA.APPN.SNA.IBM.COM. If the reply returned is
“Unknown host,” GENEVA.APPN.SNA.IBM.COM, double-check the host table entry to ensure that the long name was entered correctly. If the reply returned is “No response from host with x Seconds,” you have a network configuration problem. Make sure the IP address is keyed correctly in the host table and verify that the remote 400 is running and TCP/IP is started on both systems.

Once you ping the remote system, try to attach using AnyNet. I use the Pass Through command for testing. To test the Geneva to Oslo connection, you enter STRPASTHR RMTLOCNAM(GENEVA) LCLLOCNAM(OSLO). A variety of errors may be returned if the connection is not configured properly. If you receive the error “Route to specified location not found,” either the remote or local location list is probably not set up properly. Double-check the entries in both lists to verify that the entries are correct according to the matching parameter table in Figure 1. If you receive an APPC failure, the system returns the failure code. Check the additional message text to determine the reason. Most of the return codes are explained in detail in the APPN Support V4R2 or the Problem Determination Guide manuals.

You should have the latest PTFs installed, especially if you are on V3R2. Occasionally, the job associated with APPC over TCP/IP does not start. Use the WRKSBSJOB QSYSWRK command to verify that a job named QAPPCTCP with a function of PGM-QZPAIJOB is active. If this job is not active in the QSYSWRK subsystem, use DSPNETA to verify that the ALWANYNET parameter is set to *YES. If the parameter is *YES, you must vary off any APPC over TCP/IP controllers, change the parameter to *NO, change it back to *YES, and then vary on the APPC over TCP/IP controllers. This should start the job in QSYSWRK.

Patience Is Its Own Reward

Be patient. You may not be able to connect the first time you set this up. The host table entries and the local list entries must match correctly. It’s easy to key the long name incorrectly, so double-check the entries in these tables if you have a problem. Once you get accustomed to setting up these tables, adding a new connection is a breeze.

REFERENCES AND RELATED MATERIALS

• APPN Support V4R2 (SC41-5407-02, CD-ROM QB3ANH02)

• Client Access for Windows 95/NT-Setup V3R2M0 (SC41-3512-05, CD-ROM QBKACN06)

• “Configuring Your AS/400 to Use TCP/IP,” Steve Gau, MC, October 1997

• OS/400 Communications Configuration V4R1 (SC41-5401-00, CD-ROM QB3ANB00)

• OS/400 TCP/IP Configuration and Reference V4R4 (SC41-5420-03, CD-ROM QB3ANL03)

• Problem Determination Guide (SC31-6156-00, CD-ROM CO6P3000)

• “SYSOP: AS/400 TCP/IP Basic Setup and Services,” Kevin Gerard, MC, April 2000

• “Talking Shop: SNA and TCP/IP: An Alliance Worth Considering,” Jim Scott, MC, September 1999


Configuring_APPN_over_TCP-_IP_on_the_AS-_40006-00.png 395x275

Figure 1: This is the matching parameter list from the OS/400 Communications Configuration V4R1 manual.

Figure 2: Here is the local location list set up for the Oslo system.


Configuring_APPN_over_TCP-_IP_on_the_AS-_40006-01.png 406x243

Configuring_APPN_over_TCP-_IP_on_the_AS-_40007-00.png 397x237

Figure 3: The remote location list on the Oslo system connects to systems Geneva, Shanghai, and Sydney.


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    • Modernizing with RPG OA requires significant changes to the source code
    • The RPG language is outdated and impractical for modernizing applications
    • Modernizing with RPG OA is the equivalent to "screen scraping"

     

  • Time to Remove the Paper from Your Desk and Become More Efficient

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericToo much paper is wasted. Attempts to locate documents in endless filing cabinets.And distributing documents is expensive and takes up far too much time.
    These are just three common reasons why it might be time for your company to implement a paperless document management system.
    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally

     

  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic

    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days

     

  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    SB Profound WC GenericHave you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
    Watch Now.

  • The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

    SB Profound WC Generic The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
    Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
    Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
    Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
    This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
    Watch Now.

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.