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Understanding Operations Navigator Server Jobs

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There are two sets of server jobs that can be configured and managed through Operations Navigator (OpsNav): TCP/IP servers and Client Access/400 servers. But what are these servers used for, and why do you need to know about them? This article gives a high-level overview of each server and covers the servers that are available from the V4R5 OpsNav client. Since in-depth articles could be written for each server, this information is intended to give you an idea of whether each server will be of interest to you; more information on most servers can be found at the IBM iSeries 400 Information Center (see the References and Related Materials section at the end of this article).

OpsNav Hierarchy

Within Operations Navigator’s hierarchy, click the Network tree item, then click the Servers icon, and you’ll find two more tree items: one for TCP/IP servers and one for Client Access servers. You can open each container to view the status of the various servers. Right-clicking on a particular server brings up a pop-up menu that shows the options that are available for that server. Each server can be configured via its properties or a configuration option. In addition, each server can be started, stopped, or its server jobs can be viewed.

Not all servers have configurable parameters to control the server. However, all servers do have the Start when TCP/IP is started property. This specifies that the server is to be automatically started when TCP/IP is started. The default value of this property varies from server to server. The default is to start automatically if the server is a commonly used one that most systems require.

TCP/IP Servers

TCP/IP servers provide services to a client in the network. The iSeries supports many of the common TCP/IP servers, as well as some unique to the iSeries system.

• BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent—The BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent is used to forward Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) packets from the local system to one or more different DHCP servers. Clients that used BOOTP or DHCP broadcast their request to the server on the local subnetwork. If the actual server resides on a different subnetwork, you can use the BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent to forward



packets to that DHCP server. This allows clients on multiple subnetworks to access a centralized DHCP severBOOTP—The Bootstrap Protocol was developed to provide a means for diskless workstations in a network to request an IP address and the name of the initial program load source. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used to download the program load source to the diskless client. IBM Network Stations use BOOTP and TFTP for their initial load processing. DHCP is a follow-on to BOOTP, and DHCP supports both DHCP packets and BOOTP packets.

• Distributed Data Management—The Distributed Data Management (DDM) server allows applications or users to access remote databases; that is, the database resides on one system while the application or user is on another system. The data access can be done with iSeries-native I/O using DDM, or with SQL by using Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA). The DDM server is named as such because the DRDA is built upon the DDM architecture. DDM and DRDA run over both SNA and TCP/IP, but the DDM server is used only when the systems are connected via TCP/IP.

• Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol—Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a way to configure the TCP/IP attributes of client machines from a central server. Among the various configuration information it can provide, DHCP can provide a dynamically assigned IP address for the client computer and determine which routers and DNS servers it should use on the specific network to which it just connected. This can be particularly useful in mobile computing. The DHCP server can also be used to supply configuration information to clients that use BOOTP. When using DHCP, BOOTP, or the BOOPT/DHCP Relay Agent, only one of the three servers can be active at any time, since all three of these servers listen on the same port.

• Route Daemon—The Route Daemon (RouteD) server is used to provide dynamic routing. Dynamic routing deals with the ability to determine how to route traffic based upon a changing network topology, as opposed to static routing, for which the decision of how to route traffic is defined manually by the system administrator.

• Remote Procedure Call—The Remote Procedure Call (RPC) RPCBIND daemon is necessary to use and run Network File System (NFS) daemons and other applications utilizing the Transport-Independent RPC (TI-RPC) APIs. This RPC server is the same server as the RPC server under the NFS servers.

• Virtual Private Networking—The Virtual Private Networking (VPN) server is necessary if you are planning to use VPN. Virtual private networking allows you to have secure communications for sensitive data between your iSeries and other computers that support VPN. VPN can be used to enable secure connections over a public network infrastructure, such as the Internet, as well as private intranets. VPN provides secure connections with authentication and encryption algorithms using technologies such as Internet Protocol Security, Internet Key Exchange (IKE), and Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).

• Trivial FTP—Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a simple protocol that provides a basic file transfer function with no user authentication. TFTP and BOOTP together provide support for the IBM Network Station for AS/400. BOOTP provides the way to assign an IP address to the client and request the name of the program load source, and TFTP is used to download the program load source.



• Network File System—The NFS provides the ability to store files on a server system and have clients in the network transparently access and use the single set of files. This eliminates the problem of having multiple copies of the files scattered throughout the network on various systems. NFS is typically used as the mechanism to share files among UNIX-type computer systems.

• AS/400 Support for Windows Network Neighborhood—AS/400 Support for Windows Network Neighborhood (AS/400 NetServer) enables Microsoft Windows clients to use the iSeries as the server for file and print sharing. AS/400 NetServer configuration is a bit different from other TCP/IP servers. The AS/400 NetServer properties are in a display- only mode. As Figure 1 shows, it is necessary to click the Next Start button to modify AS/400 NetServer properties. This button brings up a panel that allows the properties to be changed.

• Internet Daemon Super Server—The Internet Daemon (INETD) Super server listens for client requests for many different server programs. The use of INETD is intended to save system resources by not requiring processes to be started and listening on ports for services that are not often used. When a client request is received, INETD will spawn a process to run the configured server program to handle the request. On the iSeries, the INETD server is used to support clustering. Clustering uses INETD to bring up cluster resource services when starting a remote node in the cluster. By having the INETD server listen for a connection on a port reserved for clustering, the need for a unique clustering server to be up and running at all times is eliminated.

• Management Central Server—Management Central allows you to manage multiple iSeries from a single iSeries in a TCP/IP network environment. The Management Central server is used to provide host-side support for Management Central. For more information on Management Central, check out the article “Control Your System Without Having It Control You,” by Sue Townsend and Becky Schmieding in the February 2000 issue of MC.

• Extended Dynamic Remote SQL—The Extended Dynamic Remote SQL (EDRSQL) server is used to perform extended dynamic SQL and related functions on either a remote or local system. The EDRSQL server handles requests from applications that use the Qxda... APIs to access the database. Only applications that utilize the Qxda... APIs use this server.

• Data Link File Manager—The Data Link File Manager (DLFM) allows database files to contain references to objects not traditionally stored inside a database file. These objects can include video clips or pictures and are stored in the integrated file system. The references, or data links, can link to the objects on the same system or on other systems. When the actual objects reside on a different system, the DLFM server is necessary on that target system. The DLFM server can be started and stopped from Operations Navigator, but configuration of the DLFM server is done via CL commands and Qshell command scripts.

• Domain Name System—The Domain Name System (DNS) maintains a database of domain names (host names) and their corresponding IP addresses. It provides the ability to define a mapping between the host name and the IP address in a centralized location; systems within the TCP/IP network can then use the lookup function of the name server to locate the IP address for that server. For more information on DNS, check out the article “Charting Your Network with Domain Naming Service: A Primer” in the March 2001 MC Web edition (www.midrangecomputing.com/mc).



• File Transfer Protocol—FTP provides the ability to send and receive files from other systems in a TCP/IP network. It also provides support for listing remote directories, changing current directories, and creating or deleting files. FTP consists of a client, from which FTP requests (subcommands) are issued, and the server, where client requests are processed. The iSeries provides both FTP client and server support.

• Line Printer Daemon—The Line Printer Daemon (LPD) server is used to receive files sent by the Line Printer Requester (LPR). You can use the LPD server to receive spooled files from another iSeries, or you can use the LPD server to receive print output from some other system. When a spooled file is sent from another iSeries, the spooled file attributes are also sent, enabling the LPD server to generate a spooled file with the same attributes. If the print information is sent from another system, however, default attributes are given to the resulting spooled file.

• Post Office Protocol—The Post Office Protocol (POP) server allows the iSeries to store email for clients who use POP for their email support. POP uses store-and-forward technology; email is stored on the server until clients request it, at which time the mail is forwarded to the client and deleted from the server. The POP server can store email for many clients; each client has a mailbox where the mail remains until the client requests it.

• Remote Execution—The Remote Execution server, REXEC, allows a client user to send system commands to a remote server system for processing. When the REXEC server is running and receives a client request, it first validates the user profile and password and then runs the requested command; the results are returned to the client.

• Simple Mail Transport Protocol—The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) function is used to send and receive email with reliable, end-to-end mail delivery. The iSeries can be either an SMTP server or an SMTP client. SMTP provides functions that are similar to what SNADS provides for SNA networks; SMTP and SNADS can be tied together to support mail applications without knowledge of the network over which the mail is sent. SMTP uses the Mail Server Framework (MSF) on the iSeries to allow delivery of email to the desired mail application, such as Post Office Protocol (POP).

• Telnet—The Telnet server is used to sign on to an interactive job on the iSeries from another computer in a TCP/IP network that has a Telnet client. The Telnet server is analogous to the passthrough server used for Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC) and Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN). When new Telnet sessions are requested, the Telnet server allocates the display device that is used for the interactive job; when a Telnet session ends, the server deallocates the display device. The Telnet server supports several display device types and also supports printer pass- through.

• Workstation Gateway—The Workstation Gateway (WSG) server is used to sign on to an interactive job on the iSeries from another computer in a TCP/IP network, using a Web browser as the client. The Workstation Gateway server maps the 5250 datastream to HTML to display the 5250 screen in the Web browser.

• HTTP Administration—The HTTP Administration server is the default administration Web server on the iSeries. It listens on Port 80 and is used to configure and manage other Web server instances. Using a Web server on your iSeries, you can serve information to World Wide Web clients using Web browsers.

You can view and manage the HTTP server jobs as well as start and stop various instances of the Web server from the TCP/IP servers GUI. However, from this interface,



you cannot view or manage the configuration of the Web server instances; the Properties option is grayed out. To configure and manage your Web server instances, you must follow Network/Internet, then open IBM HTTP Server for AS/400. This will bring up a Web browser from which you can manage your Web server instances.

• Distributed Computing Environment—The Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) provides a set of standard services that can be used to aid in the development and management of distributed applications.

• Directory Services—Directory Services is a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server. The LDAP server provides the directory information that a client can request.

Client Access Servers

Client Access servers are those that are necessary to support the functions provided by Client Access over TCP/IP and AS/400 Client Access Express for Windows. There are several different Client Access servers, each providing a specific function. Client Access servers consist of a daemon job that runs in QSYSWRK or QSERVER and a set of prestart jobs that run in QUSRWRK or QSERVER.

The prestart jobs are configured to automatically start when the QUSRWRK or QSERVER subsystem is started. Configuration parameters of the prestart job entries can only be changed using a 5250 green-screen session. They cannot be changed from Operations Navigator. Prestart job entries have parameters that can manage when the prestart jobs are started and ended along with the number of jobs that should be started when more are needed. Each of the Client Access servers are briefly discussed below.

• Central Server—The Central server handles two functions, license management and conversion mapping, for AS/400 Client Access. A license is necessary when using data transfer or PC5250; the central server manages these licenses when a PC5250 or data transfer session is initiated. An ASCII/EBCDIC conversion map may be requested by the client, and the central server retrieves the requested conversion map.

• Database Server—The Database server allows clients to access the functions included with DB2/400. This server provides SQL access, ODBC support, the ability to create and delete files, the ability to add and remove file members, and the ability to retrieve information about database files that exist on the system. It should be noted that the Database Server is used by Operations Navigator when it accesses information from database files on the iSeries.

• Data Queue Server—The Data Queue server allows clients to access data queues on the iSeries server. A data queue is an object that is used by iSeries application programs as a way to communicate between jobs.

• File Server—The File server is used by Client Access to store and access files and programs on an iSeries. Client Access Express no longer uses the file server; it takes advantage of the AS/400 NetServer for its file serving support.

• Network Print Server—The Network Print server allows the client to use printers attached to the iSeries. It also provides the ability to manage those print resources from the client. As with the File server, Client Access Express does not use the Network Print server; it takes advantage of the AS/400 NetServer for its print serving support.



• Remote Command Server—The Remote Command server allows client users and applications to issue iSeries CL commands and call programs. The remote command server is heavily used by Operations Navigator. Operations Navigator uses APIs and CL commands on the iSeries to perform the functions requested.

• Sign-on Server—The Sign-on server is used to perform user profile and password validation when a user is signing on to the iSeries while using Client Access functions. This sign-on validation includes dealing with user profiles that have expired passwords and allowing passwords to be changed during the sign-on processing.

• ServerPort Mapper Server—The Port mapper allows the client to find the port of a particular service (server). The client sends in a request with the service name, and the port mapper looks up the service in the service table and returns the port number to the client. The actual port being used for that service can be changed in the service table, if necessary.

• Multimedia Server—The Multimedia server is used for the Ultimedia System Facilities (USF) function within Operations Navigator. The multimedia support allows you to store multimedia data on the iSeries and use that data in your applications.

There are a lot of servers! While you may not need to use all these servers at this time, knowing what is available can help you determine whether there are servers and functions on the iSeries that you may want to take advantage of in the future.

REFERENCES AND RELATED MATERIALS

• Client Access Express Host Servers V4R4M0 (SC41-5740-03)
• Distributed Database Programming (SC41-5702)
• IBM AS/400 NetServer information page: www.as400.ibm.com/netserver
• IBM iSeries 400 Information Center, V4R5 information page: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/ html/as400/v4r5m1/ic2924/index.htm
• IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 (SC41-0632)
• IBM Online Publications page: http://as400bks.rochester.ibm.com
• Internet Engineering Task Force home page: www.ietf.org
• OS/400 TCP/IP Configuration and Reference V4R3 (SC41-5420)



Understanding_Operations_Navigator_Server_Jobs07-00.png 600x451

Figure 1: To change AS/400 NetServer properties, click the Next Start button.



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    • Modernizing with RPG OA is the equivalent to "screen scraping"

     

  • Time to Remove the Paper from Your Desk and Become More Efficient

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericToo much paper is wasted. Attempts to locate documents in endless filing cabinets.And distributing documents is expensive and takes up far too much time.
    These are just three common reasons why it might be time for your company to implement a paperless document management system.
    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally

     

  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic

    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days

     

  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.