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JUnit: An Automated Test Runner for Java

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Scenario 1: It's 1 a.m., your pager goes off, you call in, and the system is down. The operators explain the problem. You log in to the system and quickly isolate the error. You code up a one-line patch and write a sanity test to make sure it works. The test works, so you decide to go ahead and put it in production. Your hand hovers momentarily over the keyboard, just as it always does when you make a change to the system (even a small one), and then you hit Enter, committing to the change. You log out and try to get back to sleep. At 3 a.m., you are just nodding off when your pager goes off again. The system crashed again, the operator explains as you log in and start working the problem. The knot in your stomach tightens as you trace the error back to the line of code you just added. Your fix worked for the case that you wrote the test for, but broke something in what you had thought was an unrelated module. It turns out some new functionality was recently added to this previously unrelated module, and that's what caused your original problem. You fix the new problem, write another quick test, and get the system back up. You then lie awake the rest of the night trying to think of what problems your new fix could possibly cause.

Scenario 2: It's 1 a.m., your pager goes off, you call in, and the system is down. The operators explain the problem. You log in to the system and quickly isolate the error. You write a test that should pass if the error were fixed. You run the test, and of course, it fails because you haven't fixed the error yet. You then write the one-line fix to the code and rerun your new test; this time it passes. You load up the master test suite of all the tests that have ever been written for the system and run them. All the tests pass except for one, which surprises you because the one that broke was in what you had thought was an unrelated module. As it turns out, some new functionality was recently added to this previously unrelated module, and that's what caused your original problem. You fix the new problem and rerun all the tests. They all pass. You put the new code into production and go back to bed, feeling confident that your two changes to the code will work.

Unfortunately, many of us live in the world of the first scenario. The focus of this article is how to use JUnit to get out of the world described in Scenario 1. JUnit is a framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck to test Java code. JUnit can be downloaded from www.junit.org and is covered by an open-source software license (see the Web site for details). Installation is easy; you just download the installation file and unzip it to a convenient place. There are two key files that you will want to use. The first file is README.html, which has links, all the release notes, and some good examples. The second is file is junit.jar, which you will need to add to your CLASSPATH.

Taking JUnit for a Test Drive
Now that you have JUnit installed, you are ready to try your first test. Figure 1 shows the code for a trivial class called SimpleTest that you can use to make sure that you have JUnit installed correctly.

import junit.framework.TestCase;

public class SimpleTest extends TestCase
{
    public SimpleTest(String name)
    {
        super(name);
    }

public void testAlwayPasses()
    {
        assert(true);
    }
}

Figure 1: The class SimpleTest can be used to verify that JUnit was installed correctly.

Although there are several implementations of the TestRunner in JUnit, you will be using the swing version. Compile the class and invoke the swing version of JUnit. (Be sure the directory of the test classes is in your CLASSPATH.) Simply type java junit.swingui.TestRunner at the command prompt, or direct your integrated development environment (IDE) to use junit.swingui.TestRunner as the Main Class for your project, and execute the project. Either way, the JUnit swing interface will launch. Next, type in the name of the test class--in this case, SimpleTest--and click Run. Your result should look exactly like Figure 2.

Figure 2: JUnit should look like this after you've successfully run the test in SimpleTest.

JUnit opens up classes that extend junit.framework.TestCase, looks for methods that begin with test, and then invokes them one at a time. Each invocation of a test method is recorded as a Run and may contain any number of asserts(). If an assert evaluates to false, the method is terminated and the test is recorded as a failure. If the method throws an exception that isn't caught, it is recorded as an error. In this example, only one method was called. It made no false assertions and threw no errors, so JUnit in Figure 2 is showing 1 Run, 0 Errors and 0 Failures.

Next, try the class in Figure 3, which has some trivial String tests.

import junit.framework.TestCase;

public class StringTest extends TestCase
{
    private static final String aTestString = "A Test String";
    private String aString = "";
    private String bString = "";
    private String abString = "";

public StringTest(String name)
    {
        super(name);
    }

public void setUp()
    {
        aString = "A";
        bString = "B";
        abString = "AB";
    }

public void testConstructingStrings ()
    {
        String aString = aTestString;
        assert(aString.equals(aTestString));
    }

public void testConcatString()
    {
        String result = aString + bString;
        assert(result.equals(abString));
    }

public void testAnotherConcatString()
    {
        String result = aString + bString;
        assertEquals(result,abString);
    }

public void testAlwaysFailsAssert()
    {
        fail("Always Fails Here");
    }

public void testAlwaysThrowsException() throws Exception
    {
        throw new Exception();
    }

public void testNullPointerException()
    {
        aString = null;
        try
        {
            bString = new String(aString);
            fail();
        }
        catch (NullPointerException NPE)
        {
        }
    }
}

Figure 3: The StringTest class can be used to try out JUnit?s testing features on Java Strings.

This test class contains a method called setUp(), a constructor, and six methods that begin with the word test. The method setUp() is part of something known as a "test fixture." Use fixtures when you want to set the system to a particular state before and after you call each test method. Fixtures are implemented through the use of the methods setUp() and tearDown(). The framework calls setUp() before each test method and calls tearDown() after each test method. Note that setUp() and tearDown() are inherited methods and need not be overridden in your classes that inherit from TestCase. Fixtures are obviously good for tests that involve opening and closing files or database connections, but they can also be useful in setting up complex object states. So in this example, setUp() would get called a total of six times, just before each of the test methods. Now take a look at each of the methods:
· testConstructingStrings()--This test creates one string from another and then makes sure that they are still equal. The test passes.
· testConcatString()--This test concatenates two of the strings created in the fixture and tests for the correct result. This test passes.
· testAnotherConcatString()--Similar to testConcatString(), except this test uses assertEquals() instead of assert(). There are quite a number of different types of asserts; see the JUnit JavaDoc for the full list. This test passes.
· testAlwaysFailsAssert()--As the name implies, this test always fails because of the call to fail(). This test is included to show how JUnit reports failures. Note that fail() is equivalent to assert(false).
· testAlwaysThrowsException()--As the name implies, this test always throws an exception that is not caught. This test is included to show how JUnit reports unhandled exceptions as errors.
· testNullPointerException()--This is the only tricky test. Here you want to test that the class correctly throws a NullPointerException, but since this is the behavior that you want to test for, you catch the exception, do nothing with it, and fail() the test if the exception is not thrown.

Compile the code and launch JUnit as you did in the first example, but change the name of the test name to StringTest. Figure 4 shows the results, which are 6 Runs, 1 Error, and 1 Failure, as described above. On the Failures tab, there is a list with the class name and method of the tests that had an error or failure. Clicking on an item in this list populates the pane below it with even more information, including the line number of the offending statement. Also, note that the progress bar turned red. Anytime even one test has a failure or error, the entire bar turns red.

Figure 4: The JUnit graphical interface clearly displays code failure points.

To better organize large groups of tests, combine them into suites, which can then be combined into other suites. In this way, you can create a class that extends TestCase for each class in your system and then combine these classes into suites grouped by package, functional area, length of test, or any other requirement. The ultimate goal is to have one master suite that contains all the other suites, allowing you to run all your tests with one click. Figure 5 contains the source code to create a suite containing both of your classes.

import junit.framework.Test;
import junit.framework.TestSuite;

public class SimpleSuite
{
    public static Test suite()
    {
        TestSuite suite = new TestSuite("Simple Test Suite");
        suite.addTest(new TestSuite(SimpleTest.class));
        suite.addTest(new TestSuite(StringTest.class));
        return suite;
   }
}

Figure 5: The Class SimpleSuite shows how to combine tests into suites.

Compile this new code and then comment out the testAlwaysFailsAssert() and testAlwaysThrowsException() methods from StringTest so that you are running only tests that will pass. Then, recompile StringTest. Now run JUnit as before, but give it the class name of your suite, SimpleSuite. When you run the suite, it will call all the test methods in both of your classes. After you run the test, click on the Test Hierarchy tab in the center pane and you will see a tree structure showing all the test classes and their test methods. As shown in Figure 6, each of these tests can be run individually by selecting the test and clicking on the Run button to the right.

Figure 6: SimpleSuite completes a successful test.

Test-First Programming
Robust testing tools such as JUnit have given rise to a programming construction technique known as "test-first programming." The idea is simple: When you need to add functionality, you first write all the tests that will need to pass in order for the new functionality to work. You then stub out just enough of the code that the tests call, in order to make all the tests fail. Then you add code so that, one by one, the tests start passing. When all the tests pass, you are done. Similarly, when you are fixing a bug in the system, you first write one or more tests that should pass when the bug is fixed. Run the tests to make sure that they all fail and then fix them one at a time until once again all the tests pass. Once test-first programming has become ingrained into your everyday work habits, it is very hard to go back. This has been described as the "If it isn't tested, it doesn't exist" mentality.

An interesting benefit to having piles of test code is that the pile becomes a working example of how to use the code being tested. Sometimes you can learn more by reading the test cases than by reading the source code itself because you get more context from the tests and are more focused on what something is doing, rather than how it is doing it. Test code is also great for cutting and pasting complicated method calls.

Integration
JUnit makes integration easier, more robust, and more frequent. When you want to integrate new code into the system, first make sure that it passes all your new tests. Then make sure that it passes every other test that has ever been written. If it doesn't, fix the code or don't integrate. The key to integration is in thinking to yourself: All the code passes all the tests all the time.

So how does JUnit find all these methods with test at the beginning of their names and know how to set up fixtures? The short answer is design patterns and reflection. The long answer, you get by reading "JUnit: A Cook's Tour" at http://junit.sourceforge.net/doc/cookstour/cookstour.htm.

A Final Scenario
Scenario 3: Your pager doesn't go off at 1 a.m. because when the new functionality was added to the system it broke an existing test case and since the code was corrected before it went into production, you get to sleep blissfully through the night.

JUnit is a great tool, but it can't do everything. Although people are working on extensions to the framework, it is difficult to test servlets and user interfaces without changing the code being tested. A definite red flag is if you find yourself modifying your code to make it easier to test. A common mistake is changing something from private to public to make it testable. JUnit testing should only be used for "blackbox" testing; you should only be testing the interface of an object, not its implementation.

JUnit is an easy-to-learn yet powerful tool for creating tests and test fixtures. It allows you to combine your test into suites that you can use to test your entire system. JUnit lends itself to test-first programming and has a side benefit of providing you with test code that helps document your system. Once you have tests that allow you to test your whole system, integration becomes easier to manage. Servlets and user interfaces are difficult to test using JUnit, but there are a number of projects being worked on that should change this.

Michael J. Floyd is a senior software engineer and extreme programmer with DivXNetworks. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Related Materials
JUnit Test Infected Web site: http://junit.sourceforge.net/doc/testinfected/testing.htm

Michael Floyd

Michael J. Floyd is the Vice President of Engineering for DivX, Inc.

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    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.