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Finally, Data Definitions in RPG Look "Modern"!

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Are you still looking for reasons to move to free-format coding?

 

Editor's note: This excerpt is from chapter 10 of Evolve Your RPG Coding: Move from OPM to ILE ... and Beyond.

 

There's nothing worse for a programmer who has just come to RPG from a "modern" language than not being able to understand how data is defined in RPG. The fixed-format D-specs can be a real nightmare. (They were for me, when I started.) This is because you have to remember which letter corresponds to which data type, and the connection between the data type and its single-letter D-spec definition isn't always obvious. (You know what I mean …"Z" for timestamp?!) In the free-format version, programmers from both the "outside world" and "traditional RPG" find intuitive data-type definitions, as you'll see later in the examples.

 

While the syntax of control and file definition statements is similar to a "regular" free-format statement, some of the data definition statements require a structure that clearly marks the beginning and end of the definition. Let's pause for a moment to recall what types of data definitions exist in fixed-format RPG:

 

  • Standalone fields, defined by an "S" in position 24
  • Constants, defined by a "C" in the same position
  • Data structures, identified by the "DS" abbreviation in positions 24 and 25
  • Prototype and respective return values (if any), identified by "PR" in positions 24 and 25
  • The prototype interface, identified by "PI" in positions 24 and 25

 

These are very different types of data definitions, so it shouldn't come as a surprise that they require different coding. Let's start with the simplest: the standalone fields and the constants.

 

Make Your Variable Definitions Crystal Clear

Declaring a standalone field, more commonly known as a variable, in RPG is now remarkably similar to how this task is done in "modern" languages. For example, if I wanted to define a 10-character field named MyString, all I would have to type is this:

 

   DCL-S MyString CHAR(10);

 

Notice the syntax:

  • DCL-S indicates the type of definition, a standalone field.
  • The name of the variable can be (almost) as long as you want, because you're now free of the positional constraints.
  • The data type is CHAR(10), not "A," unambiguously stating the data type in the "modern language" way.

 

After the data type, you can specify any of the usual keywords, such as INZ and LIKE. By the way, LIKE's new syntax is also less cryptic! Here's an example:

 

   DCL-S W_Small_Amount Packed(11 : 2);

   DLC-S W_Large_Amount Like(W_Small_Amount : +2);

 

I mentioned that the variable names can be almost as long as you want. This is not new. In fixed format, you'd use an ellipsis ("…") when the space available for the variable name was not enough, remember? Well, in free format it's basically the same thing, but you need to keep in mind how the compiler determines where the name of the variable ends and its data-type keyword begins: there should be an empty space between them. This is particularly important when the variables have long names. For instance, back in chapter 4, I mentioned a procedure named Check_Item_In_Inv. Taking a cue from this, let's say I have a variable, defined in that procedure, named W_Is_Item_In_Inventory. Here are some correct and incorrect ways to define that variable in free format:

 

   Dcl-s W_Is_Item_In_Inventory... // This is incorrect syntax:

           Char(1);                 // This is assumed as part of the name

 

   Dcl-s W_Is_Item_In_Inventory Char(1); // This is correct syntax

 

   Dcl-s W_Is_Item_In_Inventory  

                                 Char(1); // Also correct syntax

   Dcl-s W_Is_Item_...

           In_Inventory Char(1);           // And this is also possible

 

In the first example, the compiler sees the ellipsis and assumes that the name of the variable continues in the next line, which means that CHAR(1) will be assumed to be part of the name. This will cause a syntax error because the data type is missing, and parentheses are not acceptable characters in a variable name. The other definitions are valid because the compiler can figure out where the variable name ends and where its data type keyword begins.

 

To help you figure out how to define fields, either as standalone fields or as part of data structures (discussed later), Table 10.1 lists the correspondence between the data type keywords used in free format and their fixed-format abbreviations.

 

Table 10.1: Free-Format Data-Type Keywords and Their Fixed-Format Counterparts

Data Type Name

Free-Format Keyword

Fixed-Format Abbreviation

Binary-Decimal

BINDEC(digits {: decimal-positions})

B

Character

CHAR(length)

A

Date

DATE{(format{separator})}

D

Float

FLOAT(bytes)

F

Graphic

GRAPH(length)

G

Indicator

IND

N

Integer

INT(digits)

I

Object

OBJECT{(*JAVA:class-name)}

O

Packed-Decimal

PACKED(digits {: decimal-positions})

P

Basing Pointer

POINTER{(*PROC)}

*

Procedure Pointer

POINTER{(*PROC)} PROCTPRT(name)

*

Time

TIME{(format{separator})}

T

Timestamp

TIMESTAMP

Z

UCS-2

UCS2(length)

C

Unsigned Integer

UNS(digits)

U

Variable-Length Character

VARCHAR(length {:2 | 4})

A

Variable-Length Graphic

VARGRAPH(length {:2 | 4})

G

Variable-Length UCS-2

VARUCS2(length {:2 | 4})

C

Zoned-Decimal

ZONED

S

 

At first glance, it would seem that there's a direct correspondence between the traditional single-letter abbreviations and the free-format keyword. In reality, however, there are some subtle differences:

  • DATE{(format{separator})}: Instead of defining a field as date and adding the DATFMT keyword, the date format is specified as the parameter to the DATE keyword. For instance, the following defines a date data type variable that uses the *YMD date format:

DCL-S W_MyDate Date(*YMD);

  • OBJECT{(*JAVA:class-name)}: Instead of defining a field as an object and adding the CLASS keyword, the class is specified as the parameter to the OBJECT keyword. For example, the following defines a Java class named MyClass in RPG, linked to the Java strClass class:

DCL-S MyClass OBJECT(*JAVA:strClass);.

  • POINTER{(*PROC)} PROCTPRT(name): Instead of defining a field as a pointer and adding the PROCPTR keyword, *PROC is specified as a parameter to the POINTER keyword. For instance, this line declares a pointer named Ptr, pointing to a procedure named MyProc:

DCL-S Ptr POINTER(*PROC) ProcPtr(MyProc);

  • TIME{(format{separator})}: Instead of defining a field as time and adding the TIMFMT keyword, the time format is specified as a parameter to the TIME keyword. This is similar to the DATE keyword. The following defines a time data type variable in *ISO format:

DCL-S W_MyTime Time(*ISO);

  • VARCHAR(length {:2 | 4}), VARGRAPH(length {:2 | 4}), and VARUCS2(length {:2 | 4}): Instead of defining a field as character, UCS-2, or graphic and adding the VARYING keyword, the field is defined using the VARCHAR, VARUCS2, or VARGRAPH keyword. The length {:2 | 4} part of the definition is related to the two- or four-byte prefix that stores the current length of the contents of the variable-length field. The size of the prefix is specified by the second parameter of VARCHAR, VARGRAPH, or VARUCS2. The parameter must be two or four. If you don't specify the prefix size, two is assumed if the specified length is between one and 65,535, or four if the length is greater than that. You can specify either prefix size for definitions whose lengths are between one and 65535, but for larger fields, only four is allowed.

 

In short, the new data-type definition keywords make the code less cryptic, therefore "friendlier" to new and old RPG programmers alike.

 

There's a New Way to Define Constants—and New Uses for Them

Constants are defined in a similar manner to standalone fields, with slight differences. Here's an example of the definition of a constant named C_MaxLines, set to a value of 100:

 

   DCL-C C_MaxLines CONST(100);

 

I simply replaced the DCL-S for DCL-C, removed the data-type definition (it's inferred by the compiler when the value of the constant is evaluated), and added the partially optional CONST keyword. It's "partially optional" because I need to specify the value, but I can do without the keyword itself.

 

This is another possible way of specifying the C_MaxLines constant:

 

   DCL-C C_MaxLines 100;

 

This is not new—you could do the same in fixed format. However, I suggest that you try to avoid it, because this "shortcut" doesn't improve readability—quite the contrary. What's new is the fact that you can use constants in other definitions. For instance, you can use constants to define the length of variables, as shown in the following example:

 

   DCL-C C_MaxLines CONST(100);

   DCL-S W_SomeText Char(127) Dim(C_MaxLines);

 

In this example, I'm declaring an array of 127-character strings with C_MaxLines (100) elements. Similarly, you can use named constants for file definitions:

 

   DCL-C C_Sales_Report_File 'SRPT';

   DCL-F Sales_Report Printer

                     OflInd(I_OverFlow)

                     ExtDesc(C_Sales_Report_File)

                     ExtFile(*ExtDesc);

 

Another novelty, which you might have noticed in the previous examples, is that you can now mix the specification types. I've shown two examples in which a data definition line (the declaration of the C_MaxLines and C_Sales_Report_File constants) appeared before other definitions. In the first example, this was already possible because variable or constant field definition belongs in D-specs. In the second example, I'm defining a file after defining a constant; in other words, I have a D-spec after an F-spec. This can be particularly useful whenever there's some sort of connection between files and externally described data structures, like this:

 

   DCL-F InvMst;

   DCL-DS InvMst_DS ExtName(InvMst : *Output);

 

As you can see from this example, a data structure declaration follows the same principles as standalone fields and constants: the data definition type that you use in positions 24-25 of the fixed-format line is used as a suffix to the "DCL-" string to form the operation code. This is a good way to remember which operation code to use when defining variables, constants, and data structures in full-fledged free format.

 

This example shows, arguably, the shortest possible definition of a data structure. I could swap the "ExtName…" for a "LikeDS…" and the definition would still be short, but this isn't always useful; sometimes, you want a tailor-made data structure. Let's see how to define a regular data structure, with the usual subfields that can potentially overlap each other.

 

Simplifying the Data Structure Definition

Defining a regular data structure requires a slightly more complex structure:

 

   DCL-DS W_MyDate_DS;

     W_Date Zoned(8:0);

     W_Year Zoned(4:0) Overlay(W_Date);

     W_Month Zoned(2:0) Overlay(W_Date : *Next);

     W_Day   Zoned(2:0) Overlay(W_Date : *Next);

   End-DS W_MyDate_DS;

 

Unlike the previous one-line declarations, this data structure is composed of multiple lines, like a regular data structure usually is. The logic here is that you define it like you'd write a subroutine. There's a DCL-DS line with the data structure name, which signals the beginning of the data structure declaration (equivalent to the subroutine's BegSR) and an END-DS line, which ends the declaration (the same as the EndSR line for a subroutine). In between, you define the data structure subfield names, respective data types, lengths, and how they "fit" in the data structure.

 

In case you're not familiar with the OVERLAY keyword, it overlays the storage of one subfield with another subfield of the data structure. Specifying OVERLAY(<name> : *NEXT) positions the subfield at the next available position within the overlaid field. In this particular case, the W_Month subfield definition overlays the fifth and sixth bytes of W_Date, because W_Year overlays the first four. In a free-format definition, the <name> parameter of the OVERLAY keyword cannot be the name of the data structure, as it could be in fixed format. To explicitly specify the starting position of a subfield within the data structure the "old-school" way, use the POS keyword instead.

 

Find out more in the book Evolve Your RPG Coding: Move from OPM to ILE ... and Beyond.

 

Rafael Victoria-Pereira

Rafael Victória-Pereira has more than 20 years of IBM i experience as a programmer, analyst, and manager. Over that period, he has been an active voice in the IBM i community, encouraging and helping programmers transition to ILE and free-format RPG. Rafael has written more than 100 technical articles about topics ranging from interfaces (the topic for his first book, Flexible Input, Dazzling Output with IBM i) to modern RPG and SQL in his popular RPG Academy and SQL 101 series on mcpressonline.com and in his books Evolve Your RPG Coding and SQL for IBM i: A Database Modernization Guide. Rafael writes in an easy-to-read, practical style that is highly popular with his audience of IBM technology professionals.

Rafael is the Deputy IT Director - Infrastructures and Services at the Luis Simões Group in Portugal. His areas of expertise include programming in the IBM i native languages (RPG, CL, and DB2 SQL) and in "modern" programming languages, such as Java, C#, and Python, as well as project management and consultancy.


MC Press books written by Rafael Victória-Pereira available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

Evolve Your RPG Coding: Move from OPM to ILE...and Beyond Evolve Your RPG Coding: Move from OPM to ILE...and Beyond
Transition to modern RPG programming with this step-by-step guide through ILE and free-format RPG, SQL, and modernization techniques.
List Price $79.95

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Flexible Input, Dazzling Output with IBM i Flexible Input, Dazzling Output with IBM i
Uncover easier, more flexible ways to get data into your system, plus some methods for exporting and presenting the vital business data it contains.
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SQL for IBM i: A Database Modernization Guide SQL for IBM i: A Database Modernization Guide
Learn how to use SQL’s capabilities to modernize and enhance your IBM i database.
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    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days

     

  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.