Introduction to SQL, Part 4

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Editor's note: This article is an excerpt from Mastering IBM i, published by MC Press.



SQL's version of a logical file is a view. Although a view is conceptually similar to a logical file, SQL's greater flexibility and ability to use functions and expressions make views far more powerful than logical files. For example, in a logical file there is no way to select group summary records based on the value returned by a column function, as we did in the final example of the previous article. Nevertheless, in SQL, creating such a view is easy; in fact, we already have most of the code for it. The only thing we need to do is prefix our earlier Select statement with a Create View statement and then name the virtual column created by the Min function. Here is the statement to create the view of department elders:


Create View CIS001.DEPTELDER As


   From     EMPPF

   Group By DEPT

   Having   Min(BIRTHDATE) + 50 Years <= Current_Date


We use the SQL Create statement to build base tables (physical files), views (logical files), indexes (access paths), and other SQL objects. The system object created by the Create View statement above will be a *FILE type object in library CIS001. It will be an externally described logical file, attribute LF, SQL type VIEW. We will include the Select statement used to define the record format, and to select the population of the view, in its file description; so we will have a permanent record of the criteria used in creating the view.


You can use the SQL Create command instead of the native CL commands CRTPF (Create Physical File) and CRTLF (Create Logical File) to build entire databases, but that is a topic for another day. Our purpose here is limited to showing how you can use a view to access certain data already stored in a physical file. In Figure 13.30, we have expanded databases, navigated to the student library CIS001, and then clicked the Views subtask (note the arrow). This figure shows a number of views (logical) that we created during the process of writing the Mastering IBM i book.          


041013BuckFigure 13 30

Figure 13.30: Using Navigator to Display Views


Now that we have created a view of departments and elder employees' birth dates, we can complete the original task by getting the employee-name data matched up with each row of the view. We can accomplish this by joining the view to its based-on physical file EMPPF using both department and birth date as join-relationship-supporting fields. By doing this, we can retrieve multiple same-age elders in the same department, if such a condition exists. Figure 13.31 shows the display output of the following statement:







041013BuckFigure 13 31 

Figure 13.31: The Oldest Members of Each Department


Notice that the output includes the two oldest employees of MIS who have the same birth date, May 11, 1947.


If there were other reasons to keep the department elders view on hand, the preceding method of joining EMPPF to the view would be fine. However, a view is a persistent object, and if its only purpose is to provide the information in Figure 13.31, we can use another method, called a correlated subquery. This method requires neither the view nor the use of Group By and Having.


An integer reference implies running an inner select on a group of records that share a column value with (correlated to) the current row of the outer select. Because both the inner and outer selects reference the same file, we must, in effect, tell SQL to use separate copies of the file so that running the inner select doesn't change the current record pointer of the outer select. We specify the match condition using correlation names to qualify the fields. The code to create exactly the same output as you see in Figure 13.31 would look like this:




Where BIRTHDATE <= Current_Date – 50 years

       and BIRTHDATE = (Select Min(BIRTHDATE)

                           From EMPPF B

                           Where A.DEPT = B.DEPT)

Order by DEPT


The outer select names an A copy of EMPPF, which will be read one record at a time in arrival sequence. As each record is read, it is examined to see whether its birth date is at least 50 years old. If so, the inner select is run to obtain the minimum birth date of the EMPPF B file records in the same department as the outer select's currently positioned record (Where A.DEPT = B.DEPT). When a match is made, the outer select record is placed in the result table. To agree with the grouped output of Figure 13.38, the result table is then ordered (sorted) by department. The power of a correlated subquery is its ability to compare column values from the inner (B) file against a column value of the current row of the outer (A) file. Note that the reference to DEPT in the outer select is unambiguously the A file, so there is no need for qualification.

File Maintenance Using SQL

We will now take a brief look at updating a database using SQL Insert, Update, and Delete statements. The SQL Insert statement lets you add individual rows to a table. The Update and Delete statements also work on individual rows, but they have the added capability to perform the operation on a set of rows. A row of the base table becomes a member of the set by testing True for a Where condition.


Each statement identifies a single file, which may be a physical file (base table) or an updatable logical file (updatable view). Some rules govern whether a view or logical file is updatable. It must not

  • Identify more than one file in its From clause (no join logical files or views)
  • Use the Distinct expression in its Select statement
  • Use either the Group By or the Having clause in its outer Select statement
  • Use a column function in its outer Select statement
  • Use a correlated subquery on the same table identified in its From clause

The Insert Statement

The SQL Insert statement lets you add individual rows to a table. Insert can act directly on the base table or indirectly by inserting through a view or logical file within the limitations described above. The syntax of the SQL Insert statement is


Insert Into file-name


Values   (value-list)


Here is an example using file ZIPPF:


Insert Into ZIPPF

           (ZIP, CITY, STATE)

Values   (531421444, 'Kenosha', 'WI')


In this Insert statement, because values were provided for all fields and in the same order as the record-format field order, the field list itself is optional. Therefore, the statement


Insert Into ZIPPF

Values   (531421444, 'Kenosha', 'WI')


works just as well. The field list is required when you are not assigning values to all fields or when the values are not in the same order as the fields in the record format.


In either case, we must specify which field a certain value is assigned to by putting it in the same relative position in the value list as its corresponding field name in the field list (e.g., the first named field takes the first value). Any field not listed is not assigned a value in the newly inserted record and takes the default value (zeros or spaces, unless a different default value was assigned in the physical-file or base-table definition).


Numeric values may have a leading minus sign and a decimal point if the field allows for decimal precision. Alphanumeric values and date and time values must be enclosed in apostrophes. The Insert statement must not attempt to use values that are longer than the receiving field because doing so would cause significant digit truncation.


For example, the following statement would not work:


Insert Into ZIPPF

Values   (531421444, 'WI', 'Kenosha')


SQL would return the error message "Value for Column STATE too long." Given the actual order of fields in the record—ZIP, CITY, STATE—this error message indicates that SQL could insert WI into the CITY field, but assuming the third value, Kenosha, should be assigned to the third field, STATE, it refused to do so because only the Ke part of the value would fit in this two-character field.


To add a new record to file PRJMBRPF, you could use the following Insert statement:


Insert Into PRJMBRPF

           (EMPNO, ASDDAT, PRJCD)

Values   (111110012, '2010-08-01', 'NPADV')


Proper values are assigned to each listed field even though the fields are not in the same order as in the record format. The values correspond positionally with the fields in the field list. The date field is in *ISO format and enclosed in apostrophes. The hours-to-date field, HRSTD, is not listed and will be assigned the default value of zero in the new record.


The command-line Insert statement is a convenient way to add a record or two to a database file when you are working in an SQL session. But it is a slow and error-prone method of data-entry, and a custom program normally is used instead.

The Update Statement

SQL's Update statement lets you change records within a file, using constants and expressions to modify the values of named fields. The syntax for a searched Update with a Where clause is


Update   file-name

   Set   field-name = expression

   Where conditional-expression


It is important to remember that the Update statement can work on sets of records, not just single records. Whenever more than one record in the file tests True for the Where condition, all records testing True are updated according to the Set clause specification. For example, the statement


Update   CIS001.PRJMBRPF

Set   HRSTD = HRSTD + 5


   And EMPNO = 111110012


updates a single record in PRJMBRPF, incrementing the hours-to-date field by 5. How do we know only one record is updated? Because the Where condition tests for specific values of the two fields that together constitute the composite primary key for this file. When primary-key values are given to identify a record for update, only one record is updated. When the update is performed successfully, SQL displays the message "1 rows were affected by the statement," as in Figure 13.32.


041013BuckFigure 13 32

Figure 13.32: Result of Update Statement


The real power of the Update statement is its ability to change a set of records by executing one statement and selecting the set to be updated by evaluating the Where condition. The Where condition tests all records in the table or view, and all those testing True will be updated. For example, if you wanted to give a 6.5 percent raise to all MIS employees, you could do so easily by executing the following statement:


Update EMPPF

Set   SALARY = SALARY * 1.065

Where DEPT = 'MIS'


This statement tests each record in the employee file for the condition DEPT = 'MIS' and applies the salary increase to all records that test True.


The Update statement's Set expression must reference only field names of the update table or view. It cannot identify an alias field derived from a scalar function, expression, or constant.


In an Update statement's Where clause, all listed column names must belong to the table or view being updated, unless a subquery is used to create a value or list of values used as a comparison operand. Thus, an attempt to give a 2 percent raise to the employees assigned to the New Products Advertising project (project code NPADV) with the following code would fail:


Update   EMPPF

   Set   SALARY = SALARY * 1.02




The Where expression references non-EMPPF field names, so the Update statement would fail, as Figure 13.33 shows. Notice that PRJMBRPF.EMPNO is highlighted, which shows the reference to the PRJMBRPF table.


041013BuckFigure 13 33

Figure 13.33: Update Statement Failure


We can accomplish the desired update, however, by using a subquery to create a list of employee numbers assigned to project NPADV. The modified Update statement would be


Update EMPPF

Set   SALARY = SALARY * 1.02

Where EMPNO In

       (Select EMPNO From PRJMBRPF

           Where PRJCD = 'NPADV')


This statement has no ambiguous column references and violates no update rules. Therefore, it updated five records in the EMPPF table. The messages pane in the Run SQL Scripts window verifies this, as you can see in Figure 13.34.


041013BuckFigure 13 34

Figure 13.34: Update Statement Success


When the same update rule can be applied to multiple records in a file, SQL offers a convenient way to get the job done using a single statement. However, for updating one record at a time, it is not as easy to use as a custom-written file-maintenance application. For programmers, SQL can provide a quick way to change test data, but it is not a safe or efficient tool for nontechnical users.

The Delete Statement

The SQL Delete statement removes one or more records from a file, either directly from the base table (physical file) or through an updatable view. The syntax of the Delete statement is similar to that of the Update statement, but the Delete statement lacks a Set clause:



From file-name

Where conditional expression


As with the Update statement, multiple rows (or all rows) in a Delete statement can be deleted with a single statement. For example, the statement





clears all records from the physical file. If you are using the 5250 STRSQL command line, SQL displays the message "You are about to alter (Delete or Update) all of the records in your file(s)" and gives you a chance to change your mind. However, if you are using the Run SQL Scripts interface, you will not be warned. Figure 13.35 illustrates this point.


041013BuckFigure 13 35

Figure 13.35: Delete Statement Results


The preceding Delete statement would have the same effect as the following CLRPFM (Clear Physical File Member) command.




This command removes all records from the member but does not actually delete the file. The SQL counterpart to the DLTF (Delete File) CL command is the SQL Drop statement.


The rules for forming the Where clause of a Delete statement are basically the same as those for an Update statement—any referenced field names must belong to the file named in the Delete From statement, with the exception of a field named in a subquery. For example, if you wanted to delete all employees who are older than 40 from the EMPPF file, you could do that using a labeled duration with the following statement:




Where Current_Date > BIRTHDATE + 40 years


Figure 13.36 shows the result of this Delete statement. Like the Update statement, the SQL Delete statement is useful when you need to delete a set of records having some common characteristic.


041013BuckFigure 13 36

Figure 13.36: Delete Statement Results with Labeled Duration


In the final article of this series, we will look at SQL Assist, a useful feature of the Run SQL Scripts interface that enables users to create fairly sophisticated SQL statements with little or no knowledge of SQL.



Jim Buck
Jim Buck's career in IT has spanned more than 35 years, primarily in the college education, manufacturing, and healthcare industries. Past president (13 years) of the Wisconsin Midrange Computer Professional Association, he has served on several teams developing IBM and COMMON certification tests. Jim has co-authored several IBM i textbooks with Bryan Meyers that are used by many companies and in colleges worldwide. Other accomplishments include: recipient of the 2007 IBM System i Innovation - Education Excellence Award, 2014 COMMON President's Award, and 2013/2016/2017 IBM Champion - Power Systems.

Jim is the president and founder of imPower Technologies, where he provides professional IBM i training and consulting services. He is active in the IBM i community, working to help companies train their employees in the latest IBM technologies and develop the next generation of IBM i professionals.

MC Press books written by Jim Buck available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

Control Language Programming for IBM i Control Language Programming for IBM i
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    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using as a pre-built development environment



  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.


  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.



  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption



  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.



  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access




  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.


  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.



  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.



  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    SB Profound WC GenericHave you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
    Watch Now.

  • The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

    SB Profound WC Generic The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
    Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
    Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
    Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
    This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
    Watch Now.

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.