Sidebar

TechTip: SQL GetMiles Function

SQL
Typography
  • Smaller Small Medium Big Bigger
  • Default Helvetica Segoe Georgia Times
SQL functions allow you to use complex calculations to define field values. A good example is the calculation used to determine the distance between two ZIP codes. This type of function can be extremely useful within Web-based applications for calculating freight costs or for displaying store locations closest to a defined ZIP code. This tip describes how to create an SQL function that you can use to determine the distance between two ZIP codes and how to use this function within applications.

ZIP It Up!

Before you can start examining the function that determines distance between two ZIP codes, you need to examine the data required. Included with the code for this article is zipfile.savf, a physical file containing five-digit United States ZIP codes, along with their associated state abbreviations and longitude and latitude values. This data is from the 2000 U.S. Census Bureau census. The DDS source for this file is in Figure 1.

A* ZIP CODE MASTER FILE                                           
A*                                                                
A* COMPILE USING:  CRTPF FILE(QGPL/ZIPCODES)                      
A*                       SRCFILE(QDDSSRC)                         
A*                                                                
A          R ZIPS                                                 
A            ZIPCD          5          TEXT('5 DIGIT ZIP')        
A            STAB           2          TEXT('STATE ABBREV')       
A            LONG          15  5       TEXT('LONGITUDE')          
A            LAT           15  5       TEXT('LATITUDE')           
A          K ZIPCD                                                
A          K LONG                                                 
A          K LAT                                                  

Figure 1: This is the DDS source for the ZipCodes physical file.

To load this file on your iSeries, you must first create the save file in QGPL using the following command:

CRTSAVF FILE(QGPL/ZIPSSAVF) TEXT('Zip Code Data Save File')

Once you've created the save file, you're ready to load the save file data into this file using FTP, as shown in Figure 2.

ftp> open 192.168.0.3
Connected to 192.168.0.3.
220-QTCP at 192.168.0.3.
220 Connection will close if idle more than 15 minutes.
User (192.168.0.3:(none)): userid
331 Enter password.
Password:
230 USERID logged on.
ftp> cd QGPL
250 "QGPL" is current library.
ftp> bin
200 Representation type is binary IMAGE.
ftp> put zipdata.savf zipssavf
200 PORT subcommand request successful.
150 Sending file to member ZIPSSAVF in file ZIPSSAVF in library QGPL.
250 File transfer completed successfully.
ftp: 3020160 bytes sent in 3.56Seconds 847.65Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit                         

Figure 2: Load the ZIP code data file onto the iSeries using FTP.

Within this example, replace the IP address shown (192.168.0.3) with the IP address of your iSeries.

Next, you'll have to restore the physical file with the RSTOBJ command:

RSTOBJ OBJ(ZIPCODES) SAVLIB(QGPL) DEV(*SAVF) OBJTYPE(*FILE)
SAVF(QGPL/ZIPSSAVF)

Building the Function

Now that you have the ZIP code data loaded into your iSeries, you're ready to take a look at the SQL function that you'll use with this data. This function calculates the number of air miles, nautical miles, or kilometers between ZIP codes, using the longitude and latitude points associated with each ZIP code. The source for the GetMiles function is shown in Figure 3.

CREATE FUNCTION QGPL.GETMILES(@ORIGZIP VARCHAR(5),@DESTZIP VARCHAR(5), 
 @UNIT VARCHAR(1))
RETURNS DECIMAL(13,0)  
LANGUAGE SQL    
BEGIN           
      DECLARE @PI FLOAT;      
      DECLARE @X FLOAT;        
      DECLARE @DISTANCE FLOAT;  
      DECLARE @LAT1 FLOAT;           
      DECLARE @LAT2 FLOAT;  
      DECLARE @LONG1 FLOAT;        
      DECLARE @LONG2 FLOAT;   
                                                                        
      SELECT LAT, "LONG" INTO @LAT1, @LONG1  
      FROM QGPL.ZIPCODES WHERE ZIPCD = @ORIGZIP;  
      SELECT LAT, "LONG" INTO @LAT2, @LONG2         
      FROM QGPL.ZIPCODES WHERE ZIPCD = @DESTZIP;             
                                                               
      SET @PI=3.1415927;        
      SET @X = (SIN((@LAT1 * @PI/180)) * SIN((@LAT2* @PI/180)) 
               + COS((@LAT1* @PI/180)) * COS((@LAT2* @PI/180)) 
               * COS(ABS(((@LONG2* @PI/180))-((@LONG1*@PI/180))
      SET @X = ATAN((SQRT(1-(@X*@X)))/@X);   
      SET @DISTANCE = (1.852 * 60.0 * ((@X/@PI)*180));  
      IF (UPPER(@UNIT)='M') THEN       
           SET @DISTANCE = (@DISTANCE * .621371192);       
      ELSE           
           IF (UPPER(@UNIT)='N') THEN 
                SET @DISTANCE = (@DISTANCE * 0.539956803);     
           END IF;               
      END IF;         
      RETURN @DISTANCE;     
END

Figure 3: Use this source to create the GetMiles function.
To create this function, copy the source in Figure 3 into a source physical file (QSQLSRC, for example). Next, use the RUNSQLSTM command:

RUNSQLSTM SRCFILE(QGPL/QSQLSRC) SRCMBR(GETMILES)
COMMIT(*NONE) NAMING(*SQL)

The formula contained within the GetMiles function uses the circumference of the Earth along with the longitude and latitude values that correspond to each ZIP code supplied. The function accepts three parameters: the five-character origin ZIP, the five-character destination ZIP, and the one-character unit of measure value representing the value to be returned. The value calculated is represented as kilometers by default but is converted to either air miles or nautical miles, based on the third parameter. Use a value of 'M' for air miles or a value of 'N' for nautical miles. Any other value specified will return the resulting distance in kilometers.

Once the function has been created, you can test it using the Interactive SQL console by typing the command STRSQL. From the console, type this SELECT statement:

SELECT QGPL.GETMILES('18222', '90210', 'M')
FROM QSYS2.SYSCOLUMNS

When executed, this statement will return multiple rows showing the air miles distance between these two ZIP codes. In this example, the file specified on the FROM clause is used for example purposes only.

Putting the Function to Use

Once you've successfully built and tested the GetMiles function, you're ready to put it to practical use. The example shown below calculates a shipping charge based on the origin ZIP (ORGZIP) and destination ZIP (DSTZIP) fields from the ORDERS file and joins to the CARRIERS file to get the rate per mile (RTPRMI) value.

SELECT ORGZIP, DSTZIP, QGPL.GETMILES(ORGZIP, DSTZIP, 'M') AS DIST,
QGPL.GETMILES(ORGZIP, DSTZIP, 'M') * RTPRMI AS FRTCST
FROM ORDERS INNER JOIN CARRIERS ON ORDERS.CARR = CARRIERS.CARR

A slightly more complicated example uses the function as part of an ORDER BY clause to return the data based on distance in miles. The statement for this example is shown below.

SELECT STNAME, STADD1, STADD2, STCITY, STSTAT, STZIP,
QGPL.GETMILES('18222', STZIP, 'M')
FROM STORES
ORDER BY QGPL.GETMILES('18222', STZIP, 'M')

This is an example of how you would use the function to display locations closest to a defined location. For instance, you could use it to create Web pages that allow a user to display stores closest to their home (the specified origin ZIP). To achieve that, you would replace the origin ZIP in the example with the value of the variable containing the user's origin ZIP.

This example shows how you can take an otherwise difficult task and make it a simple part of an SQL statement. This function has oodles of uses, a few of which we've examined here, but many more of which you'll discover on your own now that you've got GetMiles.

Mike Faust is MIS Manager for The Lehigh Group in Macungie, Pennsylvania. Mike is also the author of the books The iSeries and AS/400 Programmer's Guide to Cool Things and Active Server Pages Primer from MC Press. You can contact Mike at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Mike Faust

Mike Faust is a senior consultant/analyst for Retail Technologies Corporation in Orlando, Florida. Mike is also the author of the books Active Server Pages Primer, The iSeries and AS/400 Programmer's Guide to Cool Things, JavaScript for the Business Developer, and SQL Built-in Functions and Stored Procedures. You can contact Mike at mikeffaust@yahoo.com.


MC Press books written by Mike Faust available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

Active Server Pages Primer Active Server Pages Primer
Learn how to make the most of ASP while creating a fully functional ASP "shopping cart" application.
List Price $79.00

Now On Sale

JavaScript for the Business Developer JavaScript for the Business Developer
Learn how JavaScript can help you create dynamic business applications with Web browser interfaces.
List Price $44.95

Now On Sale

SQL Built-in Functions and Stored Procedures SQL Built-in Functions and Stored Procedures
Unleash the full power of SQL with these highly useful tools.
List Price $49.95

Now On Sale

BLOG COMMENTS POWERED BY DISQUS

LATEST COMMENTS

Support MC Press Online

RESOURCE CENTER

  • WHITE PAPERS

  • WEBCAST

  • TRIAL SOFTWARE

  • White Paper: Node.js for Enterprise IBM i Modernization

    SB Profound WP 5539

    If your business is thinking about modernizing your legacy IBM i (also known as AS/400 or iSeries) applications, you will want to read this white paper first!

    Download this paper and learn how Node.js can ensure that you:
    - Modernize on-time and budget - no more lengthy, costly, disruptive app rewrites!
    - Retain your IBM i systems of record
    - Find and hire new development talent
    - Integrate new Node.js applications with your existing RPG, Java, .Net, and PHP apps
    - Extend your IBM i capabilties to include Watson API, Cloud, and Internet of Things


    Read Node.js for Enterprise IBM i Modernization Now!

     

  • Profound Logic Solution Guide

    SB Profound WP 5539More than ever, there is a demand for IT to deliver innovation.
    Your IBM i has been an essential part of your business operations for years. However, your organization may struggle to maintain the current system and implement new projects.
    The thousands of customers we've worked with and surveyed state that expectations regarding the digital footprint and vision of the companyare not aligned with the current IT environment.

    Get your copy of this important guide today!

     

  • 2022 IBM i Marketplace Survey Results

    Fortra2022 marks the eighth edition of the IBM i Marketplace Survey Results. Each year, Fortra captures data on how businesses use the IBM i platform and the IT and cybersecurity initiatives it supports.

    Over the years, this survey has become a true industry benchmark, revealing to readers the trends that are shaping and driving the market and providing insight into what the future may bring for this technology.

  • Brunswick bowls a perfect 300 with LANSA!

    FortraBrunswick is the leader in bowling products, services, and industry expertise for the development and renovation of new and existing bowling centers and mixed-use recreation facilities across the entertainment industry. However, the lifeblood of Brunswick’s capital equipment business was running on a 15-year-old software application written in Visual Basic 6 (VB6) with a SQL Server back-end. The application was at the end of its life and needed to be replaced.
    With the help of Visual LANSA, they found an easy-to-use, long-term platform that enabled their team to collaborate, innovate, and integrate with existing systems and databases within a single platform.
    Read the case study to learn how they achieved success and increased the speed of development by 30% with Visual LANSA.

     

  • Progressive Web Apps: Create a Universal Experience Across All Devices

    LANSAProgressive Web Apps allow you to reach anyone, anywhere, and on any device with a single unified codebase. This means that your applications—regardless of browser, device, or platform—instantly become more reliable and consistent. They are the present and future of application development, and more and more businesses are catching on.
    Download this whitepaper and learn:

    • How PWAs support fast application development and streamline DevOps
    • How to give your business a competitive edge using PWAs
    • What makes progressive web apps so versatile, both online and offline

     

     

  • The Power of Coding in a Low-Code Solution

    LANSAWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed.
    Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

    • Discover the benefits of Low-code's quick application creation
    • Understand the differences in model-based and language-based Low-Code platforms
    • Explore the strengths of LANSA's Low-Code Solution to Low-Code’s biggest drawbacks

     

     

  • Why Migrate When You Can Modernize?

    LANSABusiness users want new applications now. Market and regulatory pressures require faster application updates and delivery into production. Your IBM i developers may be approaching retirement, and you see no sure way to fill their positions with experienced developers. In addition, you may be caught between maintaining your existing applications and the uncertainty of moving to something new.
    In this white paper, you’ll learn how to think of these issues as opportunities rather than problems. We’ll explore motivations to migrate or modernize, their risks and considerations you should be aware of before embarking on a (migration or modernization) project.
    Lastly, we’ll discuss how modernizing IBM i applications with optimized business workflows, integration with other technologies and new mobile and web user interfaces will enable IT – and the business – to experience time-added value and much more.

     

  • UPDATED: Developer Kit: Making a Business Case for Modernization and Beyond

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Having trouble getting management approval for modernization projects? The problem may be you're not speaking enough "business" to them.

    This Developer Kit provides you study-backed data and a ready-to-use business case template to help get your very next development project approved!

  • What to Do When Your AS/400 Talent Retires

    FortraIT managers hoping to find new IBM i talent are discovering that the pool of experienced RPG programmers and operators or administrators is small.

    This guide offers strategies and software suggestions to help you plan IT staffing and resources and smooth the transition after your AS/400 talent retires. Read on to learn:

    • Why IBM i skills depletion is a top concern
    • How leading organizations are coping
    • Where automation will make the biggest impact

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Encryption on IBM i Simplified

    SB PowerTech WC GenericDB2 Field Procedures (FieldProcs) were introduced in IBM i 7.1 and have greatly simplified encryption, often without requiring any application changes. Now you can quickly encrypt sensitive data on the IBM i including PII, PCI, PHI data in your physical files and tables.
    Watch this webinar to learn how you can quickly implement encryption on the IBM i. During the webinar, security expert Robin Tatam will show you how to:

    • Use Field Procedures to automate encryption and decryption
    • Restrict and mask field level access by user or group
    • Meet compliance requirements with effective key management and audit trails

     

  • Lessons Learned from IBM i Cyber Attacks

    SB PowerTech WC GenericDespite the many options IBM has provided to protect your systems and data, many organizations still struggle to apply appropriate security controls.
    In this webinar, you'll get insight into how the criminals accessed these systems, the fallout from these attacks, and how the incidents could have been avoided by following security best practices.

    • Learn which security gaps cyber criminals love most
    • Find out how other IBM i organizations have fallen victim
    • Get the details on policies and processes you can implement to protect your organization, even when staff works from home

    You will learn the steps you can take to avoid the mistakes made in these examples, as well as other inadequate and misconfigured settings that put businesses at risk.

     

     

  • The Power of Coding in a Low-Code Solution

    SB PowerTech WC GenericWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed.
    Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

    • Discover the benefits of Low-code's quick application creation
    • Understand the differences in model-based and language-based Low-Code platforms
    • Explore the strengths of LANSA's Low-Code Solution to Low-Code’s biggest drawbacks

     

     

  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    SB Profound WC GenericHave you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
    Watch Now.

  • The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

    SB Profound WC Generic The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
    Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
    Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
    Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
    This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
    Watch Now.

  • Comply in 5! Well, actually UNDER 5 minutes!!

    SB CYBRA PPL 5382

    TRY the one package that solves all your document design and printing challenges on all your platforms.

    Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product.

    Request your trial now!

  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    FortraRobot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    FortraRobot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.