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Security Patrol: V7R2 Security Enhancements, Part 2: Implementing Row and Column Access Controls

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Carol provides the second part of a two-part article on the security enhancements introduced in V7R2.

 

Last month, I covered the auditing, password composition rule, and other miscellaneous enhancements provided in V7R2. This month, the focus is on the security enhancements associated with DB2, specifically Row and Column Access Control (RCAC).  

RCAC brings the security implementation more into line with other DB2 implementations and provides administrators with a way to filter what information is available without having to develop and manage logical files. As one might imagine from the name, there are two aspects to RCACwhat can happen at the row level and what can happen at the column level. At the row level, you can select which users (or groups) see which records. The column controls allow you to mask data or show the entire field. For example, users belonging to the HR group get to see full Social Security numbers, but everyone else sees a masked value. We'll talk more specifics in a minute, but this gives you an idea of the functions of each. If it's not obvious, let me say that this is powerful stuff. However, it does take significant planning before implementation. So the focus of this article is to help you understand the implications of and plan for the security aspects of an RCAC implementation

Prerequisites

Before you can implement RCAC, BOSS option 47 - IBM Advanced Data Security for i must be installed. This is a no-charge option, but it must be installed for you to configure or use RCAC. Next, someone must be assigned the Security Administration function usage or QIBM_DB_SECADM. That last sentence probably makes no sense, does it? Let me back up and explain. There's a function within iNavigator called Application Administration. To reach it, launch iNavigator and right-click on the system name. From there, choose Application Administration. Once that's launched, you'll see three sections of Application Administration; the one we're interested in is under the Host Applications tab. The Host section allows you to give access to perform certain functionsin this case, the ability to administer RCAC. Cursor down to the Database Security Administration line and press the Customize button. See Figure 1.

071814WoodburyFig1

Figure 1: This is the Application Administration's Host Applications tab.

As you'll see in Figure 2, under the "Access" heading there are two checkboxes. If you check the "Default access" box, then anyone can manage RCAC. The only time I can even imagine checking this box is on a server that's truly a sandbox system and contains no production data. Otherwise, leave it unchecked. The other checkbox says "Users with all object system privilege," meaning any user with *ALLOBJ special authority. So here's the interesting thing. If you leave the *ALLOBJ box unchecked, users with *ALLOBJ will not be able to administer RCAC. Think about that for a moment: this provides you with a way to separate database access administration from your system administrators. You'll need an administrator (someone with *SECADM special authority) to give the QIBM_DB_SECADM function usage. But once you've done that, if you avoid giving QIBM_DB_SECADM to your system administrators and they're not authorized through RCAC, they will not be able to see the contents of the database file. Clearly, you'll want to monitor who has been given the QIBM_DB_SECADM function and what the settings are (that is, whether *ALLOBJ users have been given access). (As a side note: You can use the SkyView Risk Assessor product reports to see lists of each function (including QIBM_DB_SECADM) and the users assigned.)

071814WoodburyFig2

Figure 2: Customize users' access.

Once you've given the appropriate users Database Security Administrator function, you're ready to give RCAC a try.

Understanding RCAC

RCAC is not a replacement for the traditional object-level security settings; rather, it's the second pass in the process of the system determining the user's access to the data in the file. Therefore, even if users have been granted permission through RCAC, they must first be able to pass the test of the regular IBM i authority-checking algorithm. Object-level security is in effect regardless of how the data is accessed, and the same is true for RCAC. Once RCAC is activated on a file, the row permissions and column masks are in effect for every access methodODBC, FTP, DDM, commands such as Run Query (RUNQRY) and Update Data (UPDDTA), and via SQL statementswhich is the behavior you'd want and expect. But the access you may forget to consider in your planning is access via normal application interfaces such as a green-screen menu. Becauseas I stated beforeonce activated, RCAC is in effect regardless of how the data is being accessed. Before I discuss some specific considerations regarding this functionality, let me provide you with an example:

Imagine that you want salespeople to see sales figures only for their region. Right now, when salespeople download information into a spreadsheet, all sales figures are downloaded. To accomplish your goal, the example below can be used. Adding these permissions would enforce that users in the NORTHSALES group will see all rows where the region is set to 001 (which is how their region is identified in the database). Likewise, users in the SOUTHSALES group will see all rows where the region is set to 002. And users in the MANAGER group see all rows in the SALES file.

CREATE PERMISSION sales_info ON sales

FOR ROWS WHERE

(

VERIFY_GROUP_FOR_USER(SESSION_USER,'NORTHSALES') = 1

AND region = '001'

)

OR

(  

VERIFY_GROUP_FOR_USER (SESSION_USER,'SOUTHSALES') = 1

AND region = '002'

)

OR

(

VERIFY_GROUP_FOR_USER (SESSION_USER,'MANAGER') = 1

)

ENFORCED FOR ALL ACCESS

ENABLE;

COMMIT;

ALTER TABLE sales ACTIVATE ROW ACCESS CONTROL;

COMMIT;

Now let's look at the things you need to plan for when considering this example:

  • In RCAC, it's the absence of a permission that denies access. In other words, if you don't have permission to access a row, you're inherently denied access. This is a very important concept to remember when designing permissions.
  • If you add another region, CENTRAL, for example, you must remember to add another row permission for the group and any other group you add in the future that needs filtered access to the data. So consider the ongoing maintenance when designing row permissions.
  • A lot of people are tempted to think of RCAC in terms of what it can do for filtering data when using interfaces such as ODBC. But as I've said several times already, once activated on a file, RCAC is effect through every interface by which the data is accessed; therefore, you must ensure all users of the application have permission to the data. In our example, if application users aren't in the NORTHSALES, SOUTHSALES, or MANAGER group, when they take an option off of the application's green-screen menu, they will have no access to the application data. What do the non-members see? You might think they'd see some type of "not authorized" message, but that's not the case. They just don't get data. It's as if the table (file) is empty. (Can you even imagine the help desk calls that would come pouring in if this happened on your production system?!) Understanding the fact that all users of the data need a row permission when implementing RCAC is another very important concept to remember when designing permissions.
  • Building on the scenario we've discussed for our example, some of you will want all of your application users to have unrestricted access to all rows as long as they are within the application's interfacese.g., via a green-screen menu. But as previously described, access to the sales data from outside of the application (via ODBC, the RUNQRY command, etc.) must be filtered by regions and permission given only to select individualsi.e., members of the NORTHSALES, SOUTHSALES, and MANAGER groups. To keep the application working as it does today for users coming through the green-screen menu, you can use adopted authority. Yes, adopted authority works in the RCAC phase of authority checking. If the permission is defined to check the CURRENT_USER rather than the SESSION_USER, the last profile being adopted (that is, the owner of the last program in the program stack that is configured to adopt its owner) is evaluated. In the example above, if the application programs are owned by APP_OWN and are configured to adopt (user profile is set to *OWNER), you'll want to add the following so that there is a permission that will ensure the application users continue to have full access to the data. That is, the adopted authority will provide the permission to access all rows.

OR

(

CURRENT_USER = 'APP_OWN'

)

  • Row and column access controls will not take effect until the ALTER TABLE statement has been run to activate the row permission and the column masks. If you inadvertently activate the row permission but you haven't defined any permissions, you will block everyone from using the data. Note to self: have the row permissions in place prior to activating, especially on your production servers!
  • There may already be logic within an application to limit the data a user can see. With row permissions, you may now be able to remove this logic. Regardless of whether you leave this logic or remove it, you'll want to consider whether adding row permissions will have any effect on how application users are used to seeing and using data. Thorough testing will be required to make sure application users continue to see the data they're supposed to seeor not see.

Programmer Considerations:

  • Again, once RCAC has been activated for the file, users without permission have no access to the data and cannot take actions on the file. Now I know I've already discussed this, but I want you to consider it in a slightly different context. Think of this restriction in the context of programmers needing to fix a production data issue. Many of you use utilities that swap to a profile with elevated privileges, often a profile with *ALLOBJ special authority. Since row permissions also enforce that you must have access to read any row that you insert or update, you'll have to make sure that the profile being swapped to has row permission to all rows; otherwise, it's likely the programmers won't be able to make the update. I found this out myself. While exploring RCAC for this article, I wanted to add some more rows to a table I had created to test with. But I had already activated the permissions; therefore, even though my profile had *ALLOBJ special authority (so I had sufficient object authority to perform the task), I could not insert new rows because I didn't have the row permissions to do so.
  • Production database files are often copied to other systems. When the system is a Quality Assurance (QA) or test system, the user profiles are often the same as on production. Therefore, the permissions you've added through RCAC may not have to be modified. However, once you move this data to a development system, you may have to add more or modify the permissions to allow the developers access to the data. You'll also want to consider adding column masks as you move production data to non-production systems, but I'll discuss that in the next section.

Column Masks

Column masks do exactly as the name sounds: they allow you to mask data in a column based on some criteria. The column mask capabilities are quite flexible and powerful, but for this article I've chosen a very simple example. If users are members of the CUSTSERV group, they'll see the last four digits of the Social Security number. If not, the field will be blank.

CREATE MASK SSN_mask ON employee

   FOR COLUMN SSN RETURN

CASE

WHEN (VERIFY_GROUP_FOR_USER(SESSION_USER,'CUSTSERV') = 1)

THEN 'XXX-XX-' CONCAT SUBSTR(SSN,8,4)

ELSE NULL

      END;

   ENABLE;

COMMIT;

ALTER TABLE employee ACTIVATE COLUMN ACCESS CONTROL;

Column Mask Considerations:

  • Column masks are not the same as encrypting the data. The data "at rest"that is, the data in the physical database fileis stored in cleartext. Column masks can be deactivated or removed, leaving the data fully viewable. In addition, masking the data will never allow you to pass an audit if the requirement is to encrypt the data. Column masks limit who can see values, but as a protection measure it's not as strong as encryption and will definitely not meet compliance requirements if the data must be encrypted.
  • When encryption is not an option and not required, column masks are a fantastic way to reduce the exposure of sensitive data. In my opinion, they should be defined for any column that contains PII or other confidential data to reduce the risk to this data. This especially applies to test and development systems, where object-level security is not usually enforced with the same rigor as on production systems.
  • However, once again, careful planning and application testing is required. For example, RPG gurus Jon Paris and Susan Gantner pointed out a couple of issues:

  • If a record is retrieved and one or more columns is masked and then the record is written back to the file with the retrieved data, you will over-write the current data with the mask, losing the real data.
  • No indication is provided that tells you (or a programming interface) when you’re seeing masked data or real data. This could present challenges when debugging issues.

Managing RCAC

Defining row permissions and column masks is done strictly through SQL. While there's an indication when you run Display or Edit Object Authority (DSP/EDTOBJAUT) commands that RCAC is active on a file as shown in Figure 3, there's no command that allows you to modify or even display the permissions or masks. That's strictly done through the Row Permissions and Column Masks functions in iNavigator under Database>Schema. Or you can display them by querying the QSYS2/SYSCONTROLS catalog through iNavigator's Run SQL Scripts function.

 

071814WoodburyFig3

Figure 3: Display Object Authority shows that RCAC is active.

A new audit entry type, AX, has been added to log the creation, removal, enabling and disabling, etc. of row permissions and columns masks. Included in the audit entry is the SQL statement used to define the permission or mask. The new entry has also been added to the Copy Audit Journal Entry command to allow you to easily query the IBM i audit journal for these types of entries.

Save/Restore Considerations

When planning for the implementation of RCAC, another point to consider is the save/restore issues you can encounter. For example, the save operation will not work for a target release of a previous version (that is, a release prior to V7R2) if row permissions or column masks have been defined. They will have to be removed by someone granted the QIBM_DB_SECADM function to have a successful save to a previous release. Another scenario you can encounter is when you save a file with activated RCAC controls and you restore it to a V7R2 system that doesn't have Boss option 47 installed. In this case, all attempts to open the file will fail. The resolution is to install IBM Advanced Data Security for i or have someone with QIBM_DB_SECADM function deactivate the row permissions and column masks.

More Information

My discussion has focused primarily on the security aspects of RCAC, but there are otherssuch as performancethat you'll want to understand and consider as part of your planning. Here are some references to help you:

  • Mike Cain's blog for technical tips on RCAC
  • Details of the SQL syntax to implement RCAC can be found in the DB2 for i SQL Reference manual
  • Details of the new AX audit journal entry can be found in Appendix F of the IBM i Security Reference manual

Summary

RCAC provides you with options for adding another layer of protection to your IBM i data beyond what regular object-level authorities provide. However, RCAC is not something that should be implemented without planning and testing for potential side effects. A thorough understanding and a lot of planning need to occur before rolling out an implementation of this new V7R2 feature.

Many thanks to Theresa Euler, Scott Forstie, and Jeff Uehlingall from IBM Rochesterfor their contributions to this article.

 

Carol Woodbury

Carol Woodbury is President and CTO at DXR Security, a company dedicated to helping organizations improve the security of their IBM i Systems. Previously, she was Vice President of Global Security Services for HelpSystems and President of SkyView Partners, a firm that specialized in security services and security administration and compliance software before it was acquired by HelpSystems. Carol's foundation of security experience comes from her 16 years with IBM in Rochester, Minnesota, where she served for 10 years as the AS/400 Security Architect and Chief Engineering Manager of Security Technology for IBM's Enterprise Server Group. During that time, Carol provided security architecture and design consultations with IBM Business Partners and larger AS/400 customers.

Carol is known worldwide as an author and award-winning speaker on security technology, specializing in IBM i security issues. She has authored six books on IBM i security. Carol holds the CISSP, CRISC, and PCIP security certifications and has been named an IBM Champion since 2018.


MC Press books written by Carol Woodbury available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

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    SB_Profound_WC_GenericWhen it comes to IBM Rational Open Access: RPG Edition, there are still many misconceptions - especially where application modernization is concerned!

    In this Webinar, we'll address some of the biggest myths about RPG Open Access, including:

    • Modernizing with RPG OA requires significant changes to the source code
    • The RPG language is outdated and impractical for modernizing applications
    • Modernizing with RPG OA is the equivalent to "screen scraping"

     

  • Time to Remove the Paper from Your Desk and Become More Efficient

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericToo much paper is wasted. Attempts to locate documents in endless filing cabinets.And distributing documents is expensive and takes up far too much time.
    These are just three common reasons why it might be time for your company to implement a paperless document management system.
    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally

     

  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic

    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days

     

  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.