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Message Files and How to Use Them

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Message files can simplify many redundant programming tasks when used correctly. Status messages, notification messages, and even multilingual code can all be done with message files. Maintenance to reports and displays can also be done using message files, and no recompiling of any source.

If we are to be considered top-level employees, we must always find ways to be more productive or do what we do in less time. Such accomplishments stand out when it comes to review and raise time. I will let you in on a secret: Message files can help you achieve these goals. In this article, I will talk about what message files are, who needs them, and how they can save programmers time and make them more productive.

Message File Basics

To explain message files, consider the case of an item master maintenance program (you could substitute customer master maintenance, vendor master maintenance, etc.). When a user tries to add an item number that already exists in the database, you would want to warn the user of that fact. The same case holds true when a user attempts to maintain an item that does not exist in the database.

Somewhere in the code, you probably have warnings such as “item number already exists” and “item number does not exist” to handle these situations. In all likelihood, you hardcoded those text messages in a line of DDS or maybe even in a high-level language (HLL) program.

In addition to the maintenance program, you have the associated inquiry program that allows users to check an item’s status, minimums, what’s in stock, what’s on order, and the like. This program utilizes the same logic as the maintenance program and requires the same type of text messages.

Message files allow you to write a message once and access it by a message number instead of by keying in text multiple times in multiple programs. In this respect, the message file can be a real time-saver. You can also use message files to ease the strain of maintaining multiple national languages. Rather than rewrite code for multiple languages,

simply create message files in English, French, German, or whatever languages you need and point to those files by message number. This is a huge time-saver.

Messaging 101: Creating and Maintaining Message Files

How do you create and maintain message files? The message file object has a unique type on the AS/400, *MSGF. Use the Work with Object (WRKOBJ) command shown below to see what message files the AS/400 has at V4R2. (Figure 1 shows that there are several.)

WRKOBJ OBJ(*ALL) +

TYPE(*MSGF)

To look at message files, you can use the following commands: Create Message File (CRTMSGF), Work with Message File (WRK-MSGF), Work with Message Descriptions (WRKMSGD)—a personal favorite—and Add Message Description.

Let’s first take a look at one of the most commonly used message files, QSYS/ QCPFMSG. Using WRK-MSGD, you can see that message file QCPFMSG contains many messages, as listed in Figure 2. You can use the blank at the top of the screen to position the display to a particular message number. Examining this list closely would reveal many messages that you see daily when working on an AS/400.

Now that you know what a message file looks like, it’s time to create your own and get started with messaging. The command below creates a message file in library QGPL, which should be in most users’ library list.

CRTMSGF MSGF(QGPL/TIMSGF)

The ADDMSGD command gives you one way to add messages to your message file; however, my favorite command, the WRKMSGD, allows you to see what messages a file already contains and to add messages when necessary. To add messages now, type the following at a command line:

WRKMSGD MSGF(QGPL/TIMSGF)

Figure 3 shows that no messages exist in this message file yet. By pressing F6, you can create a message. F6 calls the ADDMSGD command and fills in the message file and library for you. First, you must give the message a seven-character alphanumeric identifier. OS/400 forces you to use exactly seven characters. With displayable messages, I use a three-character prefix to identify the type of message (e.g., INV indicates inventory, ACP indicates accounts payable, SAL indicates sales). You might also choose a three-letter abbreviation of your company’s name to serve as a prefix for messages that cross the defined types or have no natural home of their own. Then, you can follow the prefix with an incremental four-digit number. This nomenclature is only a suggestion; your needs may differ. All you need is one alpha character in the message number.

To continue with the inventory example above, create a message and number it INV0001. The first parameter that you need to supply is the Message ID (MSGID), which we will enter INV0001. For the next parameter, the Message (MSG), key in the text of your message: “Item number already exists.”

The second-level text (SECLVL) is helpful if your users are tuned to positioning the cursor on the message and pressing F1 on a message. It can contain further information to help describe the message or can tell the user what to do. This help text also shows on job logs if you have the second-level text (LOG (4 0 *SECLVL)) in your job description. For this example, I will leave it blank. The severity of a message can be set to cause a message queue to break (automatically appear) with certain priorities. For now, leave it at the default of 00. Figure 4 shows what your display should look like. Pressing Enter completes the

addition of your first message. If you press F5 to update your display on WRKMSGD, you will see the message just created.

Messaging 102: How Can We Use Message Files?

Two common uses of message files are to send messages to other message queues and to display messages from a program. First, I will look at sending messages.

Suppose you need to send a completion message to let a user know that a job, such as a backup, completed. Like many programmers, you probably have a recurring use for that message. First, you would add a message in your message file and call it, for example, HAP0001 (the generic prefix for my company plus an incremental number). Supply “Backup completed” as the text of the message. Then, in the body of a CL program, send that message to the system operator using the Send User Message (SNDUSRMSG) command.

SNDUSRMSG MSGID(HAP0001) +

MSGF(QGPL/TIMSGF) +

TOMSGQ(*SYSOPR)

That message would be sent to the system operator message queue. This command enables you to send messages to the system operator message queue or the program’s external message queue (TOMSGQ(*EXT)). As an alternative, you can use this command to send messages based upon the job type (TOMSGQ(*)); for example, messages for interactive jobs go to the job’s external queue, and messages for batch jobs go to QSYSOPR. I will explore the external message queue later in this article.

Send Program Message (SNDPGMMSG) is another command that uses message files. You could notify the system operator with this command within a CL program:

SNDPGMMSG MSGID(HAP0001) +

MSGF(QGPL/TIMSGF) +

TOMSGQ(*SYSOPR)

You may use message files in certain commands and must not use them in others. (Figure 5 lists those commands that support the use of message files and those that do not.) This is an unfortunate but not insurmountable situation. If you need message text on the Send Break Message (SNDBRKMSG) or Send Message (SNDMSG) command, you can use the Retrieve Message (RTVMSG) command.

Suppose, in the completion message example, that a workstation message queue needed to be notified immediately. SNDBRKMSG is the command to use. The example CL program in Figure 6 shows how to retrieve the completion message description via RTVMSG and pass it on to the SNDBRKMSG command. Although the sample program uses an 80-byte variable, you can retrieve longer variables; the limitation on SNDBRKMSG is 512 characters. If the message length exceeds the width of the display, the message wraps to another line, but not in the way that a word processor performs word wrapping. That you must handle within the message text.

When notifying QSYSOPR, it really does not matter which command you use when in a CL or HLL program. Either command works fine.

SNDPGMMSG has some options that could come in handy in other applications. You can send messages to your interactive display or to a job log for a batch job about the status of a long-running program. To send a message to a job log, do not specify a message queue (TOMSGQ). The default for that parameter is called program message queue.

You can easily test this by creating a short CL program using the two messages that you have created already. Compile the four lines in Figure 7 and call the program QCMD/QSYS. Then, call the program and press F10 from QCMD. You should see the messages “Backup completed” and “Item number already exists.”

Have you ever run a query or a backup and noticed the messages that flash across the bottom of your screen? Like the TV show, have you ever wondered, “How’d they do that?” Here’s your chance to find out. You’ll use SNDPGMMSG in this example also.

In the previous example, you made sure the message went to the program’s message queue. If you change some parameters just a little, you can see the messages flash along the bottom of the screen. This time, you send a status message type (MSGTYPE(*STATUS)) to the program’s external message queue (TOPGMQ(*EXT)). The code to accomplish this (see Figure 8) contains a Delay Job (DLYJOB) command to allow time to view the messages.

Messaging 103: Message Files as Literals

Did you know that you could use message files with DDS specs for screen and printer output? Most definitely.

Imagine that you want a change to a report in a “normal” program (HLL program and DDS output, or output in the HLL program). If you used externally defined printer specs, you would have to recompile the DDS and then recompile the HLL program. If you had your report embedded in an HLL program, you would just have to recompile the program. What about making changes without recompiling a program? It’s possible.

Let’s take an example of an HLL program with externally described printer specifications in DDS. Figure 9 contains an example of typical output specs, and Figure 10 shows the same specs using message files. In this simple example, you save two lines of coding in the DDS, plus you make it maintainable without recompiling. Here’s how.

In your message file (QGPL/TIMSGF), add one more message—a literal for what the HEADER1 line would look like when printed. Here it’s called L000001, for literal number 1. With the immensity of possible literals, you can choose to use only one character for the message identifier, leaving enough room for 999,999 (L000001 through L999999) literals.

After creating the literal, use the message constant (MSGCON) keyword in your printer specifications and tell it how long the literal is, the message number, and the message file. To do this, you need to place the message file in your library list or qualify the message file on the MSGCON line. You simplify things by having the message file in your library list.

Does that seem easy? It is. One of the advantages of using message files as literals in display and printer files are for multilingual applications. Just as you used it here in a printer file, you can also use it in a display file. Without message files, imagine the headache of keeping one source library for English, one for French, one for Spanish... The list could be virtually endless. Using message files, you can keep a single English message file, a French one, a Spanish one, and so on. The maintenance is much easier and involves no recompiling.

Final Exam

Message files can help programmers in many ways. Their use can simplify error messages, completion messages, and display and printer file modifications. Your assignment is to look in your environment to see where you can simplify tasks and save time with message files. You might spend some time up front modifying your code, but you will reap long-term productivity gains by using message files.

Reference

OS/400 CL Reference V4R1 (SC41-5722-00, CD-ROM QB3AUP00)




Figure 1: Message file objects



Message_Files_and_How_to_Use_Them05-00.png 899x675




Figure 2: QCPFMSG Messages



Message_Files_and_How_to_Use_Them06-00.png 899x675




Figure 3: Newly created message file



Message_Files_and_How_to_Use_Them07-00.png 899x675




Figure 4: Add Message Description


Commands That Can or Cannot Use Message Files Permissible Impermissible Send Program Message (SNDPGMMSG) Send Break Message (SNDBRKMSG) Send User Message (SNDUSRMSG) Send Message (SNDMSG)

Figure 5: Commands that do or do not support message files

PGM
DCL VAR(&MSG) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(80)
RTVMSG MSGID(HAP0001) MSGF(QGPL/TIMSGF) MSG(&MSG)
SNDBRKMSG MSG(&MSG) TOMSGQ(DSP01)

ENDPGM

Figure 6: Use message files with SNDBRKMSG

PGM
SNDPGMMSG MSGID(HAP0001) MSGF(TIMSGF)
SNDPGMMSG MSGID(INV0001) MSGF(TIMSGF)
ENDPGM



Message_Files_and_How_to_Use_Them08-00.png 899x675

Figure 7: Program message example

PGM
SNDPGMMSG MSGID(HAP0001) MSGF(TIMSGF) TOPGMQ(*EXT) +

MSGTYPE(*STATUS)
DLYJOB DLY(5)
SNDPGMMSG MSGID(HAP0001) MSGF(TIMSGF) TOPGMQ(*EXT) +

MSGTYPE(*STATUS)
DLYJOB DLY(5)

ENDPGM

Figure 8: Status message example

A R HEADER1

A SPACEB(1)

A 1'ITEM'

A 17'DESCRIPTION'

A 49'CLASS'

A R DETAIL1

A SPACEB(1)

A ITEMNO 15 1

A DESCR 30 17

A CLASS 2 50

Figure 9: Typical output specs

A R HEADER2

A SPACEB(1)

A 1MSGCON(00054 L000001 TIMSGF)

A R DETAIL2

A SPACEB(1)

A ITEMNO 15 1

A DESCR 30 17

A CLASS 2 50

Figure 10: Message file output specs

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    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    SB Profound WC GenericHave you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
    Watch Now.

  • The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

    SB Profound WC Generic The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
    Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
    Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
    Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
    This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
    Watch Now.

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.