Thu, Jun
4 New Articles

Practical SQL: Dynamic Selection Criteria

  • Smaller Small Medium Big Bigger
  • Default Helvetica Segoe Georgia Times

It's one thing to create a great SQL query; it's another thing entirely to let your users do it dynamically.


SQL is not a difficult syntax; it was designed to be relatively easy to use even for non-programmers, and it lives up to that goal. Selecting and sorting data is pretty straightforward: the WHERE clause and the ORDER BY do the heavy lifting. The harder part comes when the user wants to select a specific part number or a date range or a list of states or a combination of those or none at all. In this article, I'll show you the brute force method and then something a little more elegant and better-performing to boot!

Setting the Table

I've been doing a lot of inventory work lately, so let's take a look at a hypothetical item master file. Obviously, master files have dozens of fields, but for this example, I just need a few simple fields.



Item number


Primary vendor


ABC code


The name of the file is ITMMST, and every field is prefixed with IM. I like to do things that way. Field naming is not quite so much of an art as it was back in the days of six-character field names, but consistency is still important. I can write a whole article just on naming conventions, but that's not the point of today's exercise.


Instead, just look at the fields. I've got an item number, the primary vendor, and the ABC code. Assume all fields are alphanumeric.


What we want is to be able to let the user enter selection criteria:


  1. Enter a primary vendor number or blank for all.
  2. Enter up to three values for ABC code or blanks for all.


The basic statement would be something like this:


  exec SQL declare Items cursor for

    select IMITEM from ITMMAS

      where IMVENDOR = :pVendor

        and IMABC in (:pABC1, :pABC2, :pABC3);


Not much to it. However, this handles only the cases in which the user specifies selection values for each of the categories. It doesn't help much if the user wants a list of all items from a specific vendor, regardless of the ABC code. We'll need something a little more complex for that.

Using the Big Hammer of Dynamic SQL

Perhaps the simplest way to handle this sort of thing is to use the brute force method of creating a statement with SQL. Dynamic SQL actually comprises two different techniques, one with parameters and one without. Creating the statement without parameters is perhaps the easiest. I would build my SELECT statement as a varying string:


  selectSQL = 'select IMITEM from ITMMAS';

  noClauses = *on;

  if (pVendor <> *blank);

    if noClauses;            

      selectSQL += ' where';


      selectSQL += ' and';


    selectSQL += (' IMVENDOR = ' + QT + pVendor + QT);

    noClauses = *off;



The first two lines create the SELECT statement without any selection criteria. The next section is the specific code for the vendor number. If a vendor is specified (the field is not blank), the code adds a new clause. The logic first checks to see if any clauses have been added yet. If not, it appends a WHERE; otherwise, it appends AND. I can then clone this code for each selectable field.


Note that there is a logical inconsistency in this particular snippet: there is no way the field noClauses could be true at this point, so really I don't need the check and I could always force a WHERE. But this only works for the very first comparison; once I add additional fields, the "if noClauses" test becomes very important. Also, note the use of the named constant QT. This field is initialized to a single quote.


With dynamic SQL, you have to use the PREPARE statement. Rather than just declaring the cursor, you first prepare the statement and then declare the cursor using the prepared statement. This has a lot of overhead, especially compared to static SQL, which I'll cover in the next section.


  exec sql prepare selectStatement from :selectSQL;  

  exec sql declare c1 cursor for selectStatement;    


A different dynamic technique involves the use of parameter markers. I haven't decided whether I like or dislike parameter markers. Because they force you to know most of the statement beforehand, they seem to be almost the worst of both worlds: less flexible than a dynamic statement without parameters but more overhead than static SQL.

Making Static Sing

OK, not perhaps the most graceful metaphor, but the point is still valid: static SQL really sings. That's because static SQL statements get more completely compiled, meaning they should execute better than their dynamic counterparts. As usual, your mileage may vary, particularly when it comes to SQL, but generally speaking, a static SQL statement will be the better performer.

However, the hard part is figuring out how to handle the generic values. For example, how do we tell the SQL that a blank vendor number means to select all vendors? Let's take the basic WHERE clause:


  where IMVENDOR = :pVendor


This will work when the user enters a vendor, but if the user leaves the field blank, no vendors will be selected. So we add a second condition to handle the possibility of a blank vendor code:


  where (IMVENDOR = :pVendor or :pVendor = ' ')


Now the record will be selected if the pVendor field is blank or if it matches the IMVENDOR field on the record. The only thing is to be sure that your "select all" value is not actually a valid value for the field. In this case, a blank value might be valid for the IMVENDOR field (for example, if the item is not purchased). In that case, you would need to use a different select all value, such as an asterisk.


Another case is when you want to allow multiple valid values. A few variations on the theme exist, but generally speaking, you can either use the IN keyword or create multiple clauses like the one above and "or" them together. Let me show you the former:


  where IMABC in (:pABC1, :pABC2, :pABC3)


This is simple enough. The user is prompted for three ABC values:


  Enter ABC codes: _ _ _


Users can enter the values they want to select in the three slots, leaving unused slots blank. The WHERE clause will then select only those that match the valid values entered. For example, to choose only ABC codes A and B, the user can enter A and B and leave the third slot blank:


  Enter ABC codes: A B  


Thus, the WHERE clause would check to see if the ABC code was in the list of values A, B, and blank. Since no records have blank, only A and B records would be selected. Like the previous field, if blank is a valid value, you've got to identify a different special value that is not used in the database.


How, though, do users specify that they want to skip this check completely? Easy enough: just enter the special value in the first slot. Then the WHERE clause changes a tiny bit:


where (IMABC in (:pABC1, :pABC2, :pABC3) or :pABC1 = ' ')


Now if the first slot is blank, records will be selected regardless of the content of their ABC code. Note that this makes an assumption that the user will not leave the first field blank and enter data in the other two. For example, the user will probably be confused if all records appear for this:


  Enter ABC codes:   B C


To the user, this might indicate a choice of only records with B or C in the ABC code, but the statement above will not see it that way. Since the first selection field is blank, the other two are effectively ignored. You can fix that by either disallowing a blank in the first field if the other fields are non-blank or making the SQL a little more complicated and testing that all three fields are blank. Your call.


Techniques such as this can be used for all sorts of fields. In another article, I'll show you some code designed to work specifically with dates and date ranges. I'll also show you how to create a dynamic sort order. For now, enjoy your dynamic selection criteria.

Joe Pluta

Joe Pluta is the founder and chief architect of Pluta Brothers Design, Inc. He has been extending the IBM midrange since the days of the IBM System/3. Joe uses WebSphere extensively, especially as the base for PSC/400, the only product that can move your legacy systems to the Web using simple green-screen commands. He has written several books, including Developing Web 2.0 Applications with EGL for IBM i, E-Deployment: The Fastest Path to the Web, Eclipse: Step by Step, and WDSC: Step by Step. Joe performs onsite mentoring and speaks at user groups around the country. You can reach him at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

MC Press books written by Joe Pluta available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

Developing Web 2.0 Applications with EGL for IBM i Developing Web 2.0 Applications with EGL for IBM i
Joe Pluta introduces you to EGL Rich UI and IBM’s Rational Developer for the IBM i platform.
List Price $39.95

Now On Sale

WDSC: Step by Step WDSC: Step by Step
Discover incredibly powerful WDSC with this easy-to-understand yet thorough introduction.
List Price $74.95

Now On Sale

Eclipse: Step by Step Eclipse: Step by Step
Quickly get up to speed and productivity using Eclipse.
List Price $59.00

Now On Sale



Support MC Press Online

$0.00 Raised:

Book Reviews

Resource Center

  • SB Profound WC 5536 Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. You can find Part 1 here. In Part 2 of our free Node.js Webinar Series, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Brian will briefly discuss the different tools available, and demonstrate his preferred setup for Node development on IBM i or any platform. Attend this webinar to learn:

  • SB Profound WP 5539More than ever, there is a demand for IT to deliver innovation. Your IBM i has been an essential part of your business operations for years. However, your organization may struggle to maintain the current system and implement new projects. The thousands of customers we've worked with and surveyed state that expectations regarding the digital footprint and vision of the company are not aligned with the current IT environment.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT Generic IBM announced the E1080 servers using the latest Power10 processor in September 2021. The most powerful processor from IBM to date, Power10 is designed to handle the demands of doing business in today’s high-tech atmosphere, including running cloud applications, supporting big data, and managing AI workloads. But what does Power10 mean for your data center? In this recorded webinar, IBMers Dan Sundt and Dylan Boday join IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington for a discussion on why Power10 technology is the right strategic investment if you run IBM i, AIX, or Linux. In this action-packed hour, Tom will share trends from the IBM i and AIX user communities while Dan and Dylan dive into the tech specs for key hardware, including:

  • Magic MarkTRY the one package that solves all your document design and printing challenges on all your platforms. Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product. Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Request your trial now!  Request Now.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericForms of ransomware has been around for over 30 years, and with more and more organizations suffering attacks each year, it continues to endure. What has made ransomware such a durable threat and what is the best way to combat it? In order to prevent ransomware, organizations must first understand how it works.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericIT security is a top priority for businesses around the world, but most IBM i pros don’t know where to begin—and most cybersecurity experts don’t know IBM i. In this session, Robin Tatam explores the business impact of lax IBM i security, the top vulnerabilities putting IBM i at risk, and the steps you can take to protect your organization. If you’re looking to avoid unexpected downtime or corrupted data, you don’t want to miss this session.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericCan you trust all of your users all of the time? A typical end user receives 16 malicious emails each month, but only 17 percent of these phishing campaigns are reported to IT. Once an attack is underway, most organizations won’t discover the breach until six months later. A staggering amount of damage can occur in that time. Despite these risks, 93 percent of organizations are leaving their IBM i systems vulnerable to cybercrime. In this on-demand webinar, IBM i security experts Robin Tatam and Sandi Moore will reveal:

  • FORTRA Disaster protection is vital to every business. Yet, it often consists of patched together procedures that are prone to error. From automatic backups to data encryption to media management, Robot automates the routine (yet often complex) tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAManaging messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. Messages need a response and resources must be monitored—often over multiple systems and across platforms. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events? Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAThe thought of printing, distributing, and storing iSeries reports manually may reduce you to tears. Paper and labor costs associated with report generation can spiral out of control. Mountains of paper threaten to swamp your files. Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing. Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAFor over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i. With batch job creation and scheduling at its core, the Robot Job Scheduling Solution reduces the opportunity for human error and helps you maintain service levels, automating even the biggest, most complex runbooks. Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:

  • LANSA Business users want new applications now. Market and regulatory pressures require faster application updates and delivery into production. Your IBM i developers may be approaching retirement, and you see no sure way to fill their positions with experienced developers. In addition, you may be caught between maintaining your existing applications and the uncertainty of moving to something new.

  • LANSAWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed. Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

  • LANSASupply Chain is becoming increasingly complex and unpredictable. From raw materials for manufacturing to food supply chains, the journey from source to production to delivery to consumers is marred with inefficiencies, manual processes, shortages, recalls, counterfeits, and scandals. In this webinar, we discuss how:

  • The MC Resource Centers bring you the widest selection of white papers, trial software, and on-demand webcasts for you to choose from. >> Review the list of White Papers, Trial Software or On-Demand Webcast at the MC Press Resource Center. >> Add the items to yru Cart and complet he checkout process and submit

  • Profound Logic Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.

  • SB Profound WC 5536Join us for this hour-long webcast that will explore:

  • Fortra IT managers hoping to find new IBM i talent are discovering that the pool of experienced RPG programmers and operators or administrators with intimate knowledge of the operating system and the applications that run on it is small. This begs the question: How will you manage the platform that supports such a big part of your business? This guide offers strategies and software suggestions to help you plan IT staffing and resources and smooth the transition after your AS/400 talent retires. Read on to learn: