03
Sun, Mar
0 New Articles

Security Patrol: Security Questions & Answers

IBM i (OS/400, i5/OS)
Typography
  • Smaller Small Medium Big Bigger
  • Default Helvetica Segoe Georgia Times

Q: I used the technique described in Security Patrol, MC, December 1994 to prevent the use of the Query/400 OUTFILE parameter to modify production files. The interactive queries now run with the group profile GRP_QRY.

This works fine, but my users submit queries to batch and I do not want them to update production files. Is there a way that I can cause the submitted queries to run using the group profile GRP_QRY? I cannot leave individual user profiles with the group profile GRP_QRY because the users must have the production profile for their interactive jobs and jobs submitted from application menus.

A: You can add a validity checking program (VCP) to the RUNQRY command that will change the group profile (see "Modifying OS/400 Commands," MC, October 1994, for details about VCPs).

Using the dump program from that article, I discovered that the Run Query (RUNQRY) command passes 14 parameters to the VCP. 1 shows the VCP that I wrote. VCP_RUNQRY changes the group profile to GRP_QRY using the Set Group Profile (SETGRPPRF) command from "Dynamic Change of Group Profile," MC, May 1994.

Using the dump program from that article, I discovered that the Run Query (RUNQRY) command passes 14 parameters to the VCP. Figure 1 shows the VCP that I wrote. VCP_RUNQRY changes the group profile to GRP_QRY using the Set Group Profile (SETGRPPRF) command from "Dynamic Change of Group Profile," MC, May 1994.

The final step is to change the RUNQRY command to use the new VCP. Make a copy of RUNQRY into a system library that's above QSYS and change it with the following command:

 CHGCMD CMD(xxx/RUNQRY) + VLDCKR(VCP_RUNQRY) 

There are some additional considerations. VCP_RUNQRY assumes that all users will have their profile changed. You may need to add logic to bypass the change for some users. Should the RUNQRY command be issued by an interactive user, you will need to have the menu option that executes the RUNQRY command set the group profile back to the default. You can accomplish this by using the *RESET option in the enhanced version of SETGRPPRF, published in Security Patrol, MC, December 1994.

The technique illustrated for the RUNQRY command could be extended to almost any other command.

 Figure 1: VCP_RUNQRY Program /*===============================================================*/ /* To compile: */ /* */ /* CRTCLPGM PGM(XXX/VCP_RUNQRY) SRCFILE(XXX/QCLSRC) */ /* */ /*===============================================================*/ PGM PARM(&P1 &P2 &P3 &P4 &P5 &P6 &P7 &P8 &P9 &P10 &P11 &P12 + &P13 &P14) DCL VAR(&P1) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P2) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P3) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P4) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P5) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P6) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P7) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P8) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P9) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P10) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P11) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P12) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P13) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P14) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) /* Set group profile to GRP_QRY */ SETGRPPRF GRPPRF(GRP_QRY) ENDPGM 

Q: I turned on auditing to determine what programs would encounter domain failures as a prelude to changing from security level 30 to 40. When I dumped the audit journal and wrote a query to view the output, I came up with 329,359 domain failures by 156 programs in one day. That is a lot more than I expected.

I checked the object authority on several of the programs that had a lot of entries and found all of the programs have at least *PUBLIC authority of *USE. At this point I am not sure why the programs are creating AF entries in the audit journal. I would appreciate any help you can give me in understanding what the problem is.

A:When auditing is active and you set the system value QAUDLVL to *PGMFAIL, authority failure (AF) entries are written to the audit journal for several reasons. The logged events can be for conditions other than a user not being authorized to an object. The events are distinguished by a one-character, violation-type field in the audit record as shown in 2.

A:When auditing is active and you set the system value QAUDLVL to *PGMFAIL, authority failure (AF) entries are written to the audit journal for several reasons. The logged events can be for conditions other than a user not being authorized to an object. The events are distinguished by a one-character, violation-type field in the audit record as shown in Figure 2.

You can view the audit journal data using the command:

DSPJRN JRN(QAUDJRN)

The violation type is the first character in the display of the entry-specific data. 3 is sample output from the DSPJRN command. The D in position 1 (violation type) designates the entry as a domain violation.

The violation type is the first character in the display of the entry-specific data. Figure 3 is sample output from the DSPJRN command. The D in position 1 (violation type) designates the entry as a domain violation.

An alternative to using DSPJRN to view the audit information is the QUSRTOOL command Display Audit Log (DSPAUDLOG). The DSPAUDLOG command retrieves data from the audit journal and merges it with message text to produce a more readable presentation of the audit journal data. 4 shows the output from DSPAUDLOG.

An alternative to using DSPJRN to view the audit information is the QUSRTOOL command Display Audit Log (DSPAUDLOG). The DSPAUDLOG command retrieves data from the audit journal and merges it with message text to produce a more readable presentation of the audit journal data. Figure 4 shows the output from DSPAUDLOG.

One potential source of domain failure is programs that attempt to access system objects directly. These types of domain failures are frequently found in third party application packages that have machine interface (MI) programs, which is a language for use by IBM developers. Most installations do not write programs in MI and therefore do not directly access system objects.

There is one practice that should be avoided. Installation-written command definitions should not attempt to invoke the IBM-supplied command processing programs (CPP). The IBM CPPs are in the system domain and attempts to reference them in a user-defined command cause domain failures.


Security Patrol: Security Questions & Answers

Figure 1 VCP_RUNQRY Program

 /*===============================================================*/ /* To compile: */ /* */ /* CRTCLPGM PGM(XXX/VCP_RUNQRY) SRCFILE(XXX/QCLSRC) */ /* */ /*===============================================================*/ PGM PARM(&P1 &P2 &P3 &P4 &P5 &P6 &P7 &P8 &P9 &P10 &P11 &P12 + &P13 &P14) DCL VAR(&P1) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P2) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P3) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P4) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P5) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P6) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P7) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P8) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P9) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P10) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P11) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P12) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P13) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) DCL VAR(&P14) TYPE(*CHAR) LEN(1) /* Set group profile to GRP_QRY */ SETGRPPRF GRPPRF(GRP_QRY) ENDPGM 
Security Patrol: Security Questions & Answers

Figure 2 Violation Types

 Violation Type Description B Restriction (blocked) instruction violation C Object validation failure D Unsupported interface (domain) violation J Job-description and user-profile authorization failure R Attempt to access protected area of disk S Default sign-on attempt 
Security Patrol: Security Questions & Answers

Figure 3 Display from DSPJRN QAUDJRN

 UNABLE TO REPRODUCE GRAPHICS 
Security Patrol: Security Questions & Answers

Figure 4 DSPAUDLOG Output

 12/05/94 9:54:30 MCPGMR Display Audit Log Output Page 1 OPTION - *CURRENT OUTTYP - *SECLVL Start date - *FIRST End date - *LAST ENTTYP - *ALL Date Time Type Msg ID Message text 11/19/94 6:09 AF CPI2247 Domain violation by program QCACALL for object QCACALL. Cause . . . . . : Program QCACALL in library QSYS at instruction 0000295 fa iled to access object QCACALL type *PGM in library QSYS because of an object domain violation. User WOE was running program QCACALL in library QSYS. The following information applies to the domain violation: -- Name of job: 030836/WOE/RMTDSP03 -- Time and date: 06:09:42 on 11/19/94 -- Program name: If program name is one of the following, the failure was caused by a CALL or user defined command. - QCACALL -- direct call to system program - QCLCLCPR -- compiled call to system program in CL Program - QCATRS -- user command to system provided command processing program -- Journal entry code: T -- Journal entry type: AF 
BLOG COMMENTS POWERED BY DISQUS

LATEST COMMENTS

Support MC Press Online

$0.00 Raised:
$

Book Reviews

Resource Center

  • SB Profound WC 5536 Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. You can find Part 1 here. In Part 2 of our free Node.js Webinar Series, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Brian will briefly discuss the different tools available, and demonstrate his preferred setup for Node development on IBM i or any platform. Attend this webinar to learn:

  • SB Profound WP 5539More than ever, there is a demand for IT to deliver innovation. Your IBM i has been an essential part of your business operations for years. However, your organization may struggle to maintain the current system and implement new projects. The thousands of customers we've worked with and surveyed state that expectations regarding the digital footprint and vision of the company are not aligned with the current IT environment.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT Generic IBM announced the E1080 servers using the latest Power10 processor in September 2021. The most powerful processor from IBM to date, Power10 is designed to handle the demands of doing business in today’s high-tech atmosphere, including running cloud applications, supporting big data, and managing AI workloads. But what does Power10 mean for your data center? In this recorded webinar, IBMers Dan Sundt and Dylan Boday join IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington for a discussion on why Power10 technology is the right strategic investment if you run IBM i, AIX, or Linux. In this action-packed hour, Tom will share trends from the IBM i and AIX user communities while Dan and Dylan dive into the tech specs for key hardware, including:

  • Magic MarkTRY the one package that solves all your document design and printing challenges on all your platforms. Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product. Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Request your trial now!  Request Now.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericForms of ransomware has been around for over 30 years, and with more and more organizations suffering attacks each year, it continues to endure. What has made ransomware such a durable threat and what is the best way to combat it? In order to prevent ransomware, organizations must first understand how it works.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericIT security is a top priority for businesses around the world, but most IBM i pros don’t know where to begin—and most cybersecurity experts don’t know IBM i. In this session, Robin Tatam explores the business impact of lax IBM i security, the top vulnerabilities putting IBM i at risk, and the steps you can take to protect your organization. If you’re looking to avoid unexpected downtime or corrupted data, you don’t want to miss this session.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericCan you trust all of your users all of the time? A typical end user receives 16 malicious emails each month, but only 17 percent of these phishing campaigns are reported to IT. Once an attack is underway, most organizations won’t discover the breach until six months later. A staggering amount of damage can occur in that time. Despite these risks, 93 percent of organizations are leaving their IBM i systems vulnerable to cybercrime. In this on-demand webinar, IBM i security experts Robin Tatam and Sandi Moore will reveal:

  • FORTRA Disaster protection is vital to every business. Yet, it often consists of patched together procedures that are prone to error. From automatic backups to data encryption to media management, Robot automates the routine (yet often complex) tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAManaging messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. Messages need a response and resources must be monitored—often over multiple systems and across platforms. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events? Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAThe thought of printing, distributing, and storing iSeries reports manually may reduce you to tears. Paper and labor costs associated with report generation can spiral out of control. Mountains of paper threaten to swamp your files. Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing. Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAFor over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i. With batch job creation and scheduling at its core, the Robot Job Scheduling Solution reduces the opportunity for human error and helps you maintain service levels, automating even the biggest, most complex runbooks. Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:

  • LANSA Business users want new applications now. Market and regulatory pressures require faster application updates and delivery into production. Your IBM i developers may be approaching retirement, and you see no sure way to fill their positions with experienced developers. In addition, you may be caught between maintaining your existing applications and the uncertainty of moving to something new.

  • LANSAWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed. Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

  • LANSASupply Chain is becoming increasingly complex and unpredictable. From raw materials for manufacturing to food supply chains, the journey from source to production to delivery to consumers is marred with inefficiencies, manual processes, shortages, recalls, counterfeits, and scandals. In this webinar, we discuss how:

  • The MC Resource Centers bring you the widest selection of white papers, trial software, and on-demand webcasts for you to choose from. >> Review the list of White Papers, Trial Software or On-Demand Webcast at the MC Press Resource Center. >> Add the items to yru Cart and complet he checkout process and submit

  • Profound Logic Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.

  • SB Profound WC 5536Join us for this hour-long webcast that will explore:

  • Fortra IT managers hoping to find new IBM i talent are discovering that the pool of experienced RPG programmers and operators or administrators with intimate knowledge of the operating system and the applications that run on it is small. This begs the question: How will you manage the platform that supports such a big part of your business? This guide offers strategies and software suggestions to help you plan IT staffing and resources and smooth the transition after your AS/400 talent retires. Read on to learn: