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Backup and Recovery Strategies Update for IBM i

High Availability / Disaster Recovery
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There are many ways to back up your system and your data. What's important is that you actually choose one and use it.

 

The most valuable component of any computer system isn't the hardware or software that runs the computer but, rather, the data that resides on the system. If a system failure or disaster occurs, you can replace the computer hardware and software that runs your business. Your company's data, however, is irreplaceable. For this reason, it's critical to have a good backup and recovery strategy. Companies go out of business when their data can't be recovered.

 

What should you be backing up? The simple answer to this question is that you should back up everything. A basic rule of backup and recovery is that if you don't save it, it doesn't get restored. However, you may have some non-critical data (e.g., test data) on your system that doesn't need to be restored and can be omitted from your backup.

 

When and how often do you need to back up? Ideally, saving your entire system every night is the simplest and safest backup strategy. This approach also gives you the simplest and safest strategy for recovery. Realistically, though, when and how you run your backup, as well as what you back up, depend on the size of your backup window—the amount of time your system can be unavailable to users while you perform a backup. To simplify recovery, you need to back up when your system is at a known point and your data isn't changing.

 

When you design a backup strategy, you need to balance the time it takes to save your data with the value of the data you might lose and the amount of time it may take to recover. Always keep your recovery strategy in mind as you design your backup strategy.

 

If your system is so critical to your business that you don't have a manageable backup window, you probably can't afford an unscheduled outage either. If this is your situation, you should seriously evaluate the availability options of the IBM i, including dual systems. 

Designing and Implementing a Backup Strategy

You should design your backup strategy based on the size of your backup window. At the same time you design your backup strategy, you should also design your recovery strategy to ensure that your backup strategy meets your system recovery needs. The final step in designing a backup strategy is to test a full system recovery. This is the only way to verify that you've designed a good backup strategy that will meet your system recovery needs. Your business may depend on your ability to recover your system. You should test your recovery strategy at your recovery services provider's location.

 

When designing your backup and recovery strategy, think of it as a puzzle: the fewer pieces you have in the puzzle, the more quickly you can put the pieces of the puzzle together. The fewer pieces needed in your backup strategy, the more quickly you can recover the pieces.

 

Your backup strategy will typically be one of three types:

 

  • Simple—You have a large backup window, such as an 8- to 12-hour block of time available daily with no system activity.
  • Medium—You have a medium backup window, such as a 4- to 6-hour block of time available daily with no system activity.
  • Complex—You have a short backup window, with little or no time of system inactivity.

 

A simple way to ensure you have a good backup of your system is to use the options provided on the Save menu. The Go Save command provides you with additional menus that make it very easy to back up your entire system or to split your entire system backup into two parts: system data and user data. In the following discussion of backup strategies, the menu options I refer to are from the Save menu.

 

Implementing a Simple Backup Strategy

 

The simplest backup strategy is to save everything daily whenever there is no system activity. You can use Save menu option 21 (Entire system) to completely back up your system. You also have the option to back up your spooled file data. Simply change the Spooled file data parameter to *ALL to save the spooled file data for the output queues that are saved. You should also consider using this option to back up the entire system after installing a new release, applying Program Temporary Fixes (PTFs), or installing a new licensed program product. As an alternative, you can use Save menu option 22 (System data only) to save just the system data after applying PTFs or installing a new licensed program product.

 

Option 21 offers the significant advantage that you can schedule the backup to run unattended (with no operator intervention). Keep in mind that unattended save operations require you to have a tape device capable of holding all your data.

 

Even if you don't have enough time or enough tape-device capability to perform an unattended save using option 21, you can still implement a simple backup strategy:

 

  • Daily backup—Back up only user data that changes frequently.
  • Weekly backup—Back up the entire system.

 

A simple backup strategy may also involve Save menu option 23 (All user data). This option saves user data that can change frequently. You can also schedule option 23 to run without operator intervention.

 

If your system has a long period of inactivity on weekends, your backup strategy might look like this:

 

Friday night: Entire system (option 21)

Monday night: All user data (option 23)

Tuesday night: All user data (option 23)

Wednesday night: All user data (option 23)

Thursday night: All user data (option 23)

Friday night: Entire system (option 21)

 

Implementing a Medium Backup Strategy

 

You may not have a large enough backup window to implement a simple backup strategy. For example, you may have large batch jobs that take a long time to run at night or a considerable amount of data that takes a long time to back up. If this is your situation, you'll need to implement a backup and recovery strategy of medium complexity.

 

When developing a medium backup strategy, keep in mind that the more often your data changes, the more often you need to back it up. You'll therefore need to evaluate in detail how often your data changes.

 

Several methods are available to you in developing a medium backup strategy:

 

  • Saving changed objects
  • Journaling objects and saving the journal receivers
  • Saving groups of user libraries, folders, or directories

 

You can use one or a combination of these methods.

 

Saving Changed Objects

 

Several commands let you save only the data that has changed since your last save operation or since a particular date and time.

 

You can use the Save Changed Objects (SAVCHGOBJ) command to save only those objects that have changed since a library or group of libraries was last saved or since a particular date and time. This approach can be useful if you have a system environment in which program objects and data files exist in the same library. Typically, data files change very frequently, while program objects change infrequently. Using the SAVCHGOBJ command, you can save just the data files that have changed.

 

The Save Document Library Objects (SAVDLO) command lets you save documents and folders that have changed since the last save or since a particular date and time.

 

You can use the Save (SAV) command to save only those objects in directories that have changed since the last save or since a particular date or time.

 

You can also choose to save only your changed data, using a combination of the SAVCHGOBJ, SAVDLO, and SAV commands, if the batch workload on your system is heavier on specific days of the week. For example:

 

Day/Time             Batch Workload            Save Operation

Friday night         Light                     Entire system (option 21)

Monday night         Heavy                     Changed data only*

Tuesday night        Light                     All user data (option 23)

Wednesday night      Heavy                     Changed data only*

Thursday night       Heavy                     Changed data only*

Friday night         Light                     Entire system (option 21)

* Use a combination of the SAVCHGOBJ, SAVDLO, and SAV commands.

 

Journaling Objects and Saving the Journal Receivers

 

If your save operations take too long because your files are large, saving changed objects may not help in your system environment. For instance, if you have a file member with 100,000 records and one record changes, the SAVCHGOBJ command saves the entire file member. In this environment, journaling your database files and saving the journal receivers regularly may be a better solution. However, keep in mind that this approach will make your recovery more complex.

 

When you journal a database file, the system writes a copy of every changed record to a journal receiver. When you save a journal receiver, you're saving only the changed records in the file, not the entire file.

 

If you journal your database files and have a batch workload that varies, your backup strategy might look like this:

 

Day/Time             Batch Workload   Save Operation

Friday night         Light            Entire system (option 21)

Monday night         Heavy            Journal receivers only

Tuesday night        Light            All user data (option 23)

Wednesday night      Heavy            Journal receivers only

Thursday night       Heavy            Journal receivers only

Friday night         Light            Entire system (option 21)

 

To take full advantage of journaling protection, you should detach and save the journal receivers regularly. The frequency with which you save the journal receivers depends on the number of journaled changes that occur on your system. Saving the journal receivers several times during the day may be appropriate for your system environment.

 

The way in which you save journal receivers depends on whether they reside in a library with other objects. Depending on your environment, you'll use either the Save Library (SAVLIB) command or the Save Object (SAVOBJ) command. It's best to keep your journal receivers isolated from other objects so that your save and restore functions are simpler. Be aware that you must save a new member of a database file before you can apply journal entries to the file. If your applications regularly add new file members, you should consider using the SAVCHGOBJ strategy either by itself or in combination with journaling.

 

Saving Groups of User Libraries, Folders, or Directories

 

Many applications are set up with data files and program objects in different libraries. This design simplifies your backup and recovery procedures. Data files change frequently, and, on most systems, program objects change infrequently. If your system environment is set up like this, you may want to save only the libraries with data files on a daily basis. You can also save, on a daily basis, groups of folders and directories that change frequently.

 

Implementing a Complex Backup Strategy

 

If you have a very short backup window that requires a complex strategy for backup, you can use some of the same techniques described for a medium backup strategy, but with a greater level of detail. For example, you may need to save specific critical files at specific times of the day or week.

 

Several other methods are available to you in developing a complex backup strategy. You can use one or a combination of these methods:

 

  • Save system information in a non-restricted state
  • Save data concurrently using multiple tape devices
  • Save data in parallel using multiple tape devices
  • Use the save-while-active process

 

Before you use any of these methods, you must have a complete backup of your entire system.

 

Save System Information in a Non-Restricted State

 

The Save System Information (SAVSYSINF) command will perform a cumulative save of a subset of system data and objects saved by the Save System (SAVSYS) command without requiring the system to be in a restricted state.

 

The SAVSYSINF command is not to be considered a replacement for the SAVSYS command and is not to be used for system upgrades or migrations.

 

After a base SAVSYS is performed, the SAVSYSINF command saves the following:

 

  • System objects such as job descriptions, job queues, subsystem descriptions, and changed commands
  • System reply lists, service attributes, environment variables, system values required for system recovery, and network attributes
  • Operating system PTFs that are copied into *SERVICE. Use the Change Service Attributes (CHGSRVA) command to modify your service attributes to automatically copy the PTF save files to *SERVICE when loading PTFs.

 

For system recovery, the Licensed Internal Code (LIC) and operating system will be recovered from your SAVSYS media. You then use your SAVSYSINF media and the Restore System Information (RSTSYSINF) command to restore the saved changes to system objects and PTFs.

 

Saving Data Concurrently Using Multiple Tape Devices

 

You can reduce the amount of time your system is unavailable by performing save operations on more than one tape device at a time. For example, you can save libraries to one tape device, folders to another tape device, and directories to a third tape device. Or you can save different sets of libraries, objects, folders, or directories to different tape devices. Using Backup, Recovery and Media Services (BRMS), you can run multiple backup control groups concurrently to different tape devices. BRMS is IBM's comprehensive tool for managing backup, archive, and recovery operations for a single IBM i system or multiple systems at a site or across a network.

 

Saving Data in Parallel Using Multiple Tape Devices

 

A parallel save is intended for very large objects, libraries, or directories. With this method, the system "spreads" the data in the object, library, or directory across multiple tape devices. This function is implemented with BRMS.

 

Save-While-Active

 

The save-while-active (SWA) process can significantly reduce the amount of time your applications are not available and increases your user access to applications and data. With SWA, users can resume activity after the save processing reaches a synchronization checkpoint.

 

The simplest method to use the SWA feature is to prevent user access to applications and data until the SWA checkpoint is reached. Once the SWA checkpoint is reached, any exclusive locks are released and the users can resume their normal activity while the system continues to perform the save of the data. Especially with large files, the time to reach the SWA checkpoint is significantly less than the time to actually save the object. The time to reach the SWA checkpoint is dependent on the number of objects, not the size of the objects being checkpointed.

 

Starting with IBM i 6.1, the SWA function offers a single save-while-active checkpoint for multiple saves. The Start Save Synchronization (STRSAVSYNC) command ensures a single, consistent checkpoint for your library and IFS saves or even a single, consistent checkpoint for multiple concurrent library saves. If you choose to use SWA, make sure you understand the process and monitor for any synchronization checkpoints before making your objects available for use.

The Inner Workings of the Save Menu

The Save Menu contains many options for saving your data, but four are primary:

 

  • 20—Define save system and user data defaults
  • 21—Entire system
  • 22—System data only
  • 23—All user data

 

You can use these menu options to back up your system. Or, if your installation requires a more complex backup strategy, you can use IBM i save commands in a CL program or IBM's BRMS product to customize your backup.

 

To help you make your decision, as well as to provide skeleton code that you can use as a guideline for your own backup programs, let's look at some of the inner workings of these primary save options. For detailed instructions and a checklist on using these options, refer to Backing Up Your System in the IBM i and System i Information Center.

 

Entire System (Option 21)

 

Save menu Option 21 lets you perform a complete backup of all the data on your system, including an optional parameter to back up spooled files. Option 21 puts the system into a restricted state. This means no users can access your system while the backup is running. It's best to run this option overnight for a small system or during the weekend for a larger system.

 

Option 21 runs the QMNSAVE program. The following CL program extract represents the processing that option 21 performs:

 

ENDSBS SBS(*ALL) OPTION(*IMMED)

CHGMSGQ MSGQ(QSYSOPR)                    +

        DLVRY(*BREAK or *NOTIFY)

SAVSYS

SAVLIB LIB(*NONSYS) ACCPTH(*YES)

SAVDLO DLO(*ALL) FLR(*ANY)

SAV DEV('/QSYS.LIB/tape-device-name.DEVD') +

    OBJ(('/*')                           +

        ('/QSYS.LIB' *OMIT)              +

        ('/QDLS' *OMIT))                 +

    UPDHST(*YES)

STRSBS SBSD(controlling-subsystem)

 

Note: The SAV command omits the QSYS.LIB file system because the Save System (SAVSYS) command and the SAVLIB LIB(*NONSYS) command save QSYS.LIB. The SAV command also omits the QDLS file system because the SAVDLO command saves QDLS.

 

One of the nice enhancements with IBM i 6.1 is the capability to track Save Option 21 backup times. There is a new data area called QSRSAV21 in the QUSRSYS library. This new data area will track the last five full system Option 21 saves, showing each command step, the time completed, and the device used for the save. This will allow you to analyze where your backup time is being spent during your full system Option 21 saves.

 

System Data Only (Option 22)

 

Option 22 saves only your system data. It does not save any user data. You should run this option (or option 21) after applying PTFs or installing a new licensed program product. Like option 21, option 22 puts the system into a restricted state.

 

Option 22 runs the QSRSAVI program. The following program extract represents the processing that option 22 performs:

 

ENDSBS SBS(*ALL) OPTION(*IMMED)

CHGMSGQ MSGQ(QSYSOPR)                    +

        DLVRY(*BREAK or *NOTIFY)

SAVSYS

SAVLIB LIB(*IBM) ACCPTH(*YES)

SAV DEV('/QSYS.LIB/tape-device-name.DEVD') +

    OBJ(('/QIBM/ProdData')               +

        ('/QOpenSys/QIBM/ProdData'))     +

    UPDHST(*YES)

STRSBS SBSD(controlling-subsystem)

 

All User Data (Option 23)

 

Option 23 saves all user data, including files, user-written programs, and all other user data on the system. This option also saves user profiles, security data, and configuration data. Like options 21 and 22, option 23 places the system in restricted state.

 

Option 23 runs the QSRSAVU program. The following program extract represents the  processing that option 23 performs:

 

ENDSBS SBS(*ALL) OPTION(*IMMED)

CHGMSGQ MSGQ(QSYSOPR)                      +

        DLVRY(*BREAK or *NOTIFY)

SAVSECDTA

SAVCFG

SAVLIB LIB(*ALLUSR) ACCPTH(*YES)

SAVDLO DLO(*ALL) FLR(*ANY)

SAV DEV('/QSYS.LIB/tape-device-name.DEVD')   +

    OBJ(('/*')                             +

        ('/QSYS.LIB' *OMIT)                +

        ('/QDLS' *OMIT)                    +

        ('/QIBM/ProdData' *OMIT)           +

        ('/QOpenSys/QIBM/ProdData' *OMIT)) +

    UPDHST(*YES)

STRSBS SBSD(controlling-subsystem)

 

Note: The SAV command omits the QSYS.LIB file system because the SAVSYS command, the Save Security Data (SAVSECDTA) command, and the Save Configuration (SAVCFG) command save QSYS.LIB. The SAV command also omits the QDLS file system because the SAVDLO command saves QDLS. In addition, the SAV command executed by option 23 omits the /QIBM and /QOpenSys/QIBM directories because these directories contain IBM-supplied objects.

 

Setting Save Option Defaults

 

When you save information using option 21, 22, or 23, you can specify default values for some of the commands used by the save process. You can use Save menu option 20 (Define save system and user data defaults) to change the default values displayed on this panel for menu options 21, 22, and 23. Changing the defaults simplifies the task of setting up your backups. To change the defaults, you must have *Change authority to both library QUSRSYS and the QSRDFLTS data area in QUSRSYS.

 

When you select option 20, the system displays the default parameter values for options 21, 22, and 23. The first time you use option 20, the system displays the IBM-supplied default parameter values. You can change any or all of the parameter values to meet your needs. For example, you can specify additional tape devices or change the message queue delivery default. The system saves the new default values in data area QSRDFLTS in library QUSRSYS for future use (the system creates QSRDFLTS only after you change the IBM-supplied default values).

 

Once you've defined new default values, you no longer need to worry about which, if any, options to change on subsequent backups. You can simply review the new default options and then press Enter to start the backup using the new default parameters.

 

If you have multiple, distributed systems with the same save parameters on each system, option 20 offers an additional benefit: you can simply define your default parameters using option 20 on one system and then save data area QSRDFLTS in library QUSRSYS, distribute the saved data area to the other systems, and restore it.

Backing Up Integrated Servers and Linux, AIX, or IBM i Guest Logical Partitions

Save Menu Option 21 or a combination of Save Menu Options 22 and 23 can also save everything you need to back up and recover any Integrated Servers implemented with the IBM i Integrated Server support option, or any Linux, AIX, or IBM i Guest Logical partitions on IBM i. Simply select the parameter to vary off your network servers, and the storage spaces for any Integrated Servers and any Linux, AIX, or IBM i Guest partitions will also be backed up.

Backup and Recovery of Spooled Files

Starting with V5R4, you can use native save and restore commands or menu options to back up and recover your spooled files. The best part of this new function is that in addition to saving the spooled file data, the following spooled file identity and attributes are preserved:

 

  • Spooled File Name
  • Spooled File Number
  • Creation Date/Time
  • Fully Qualified Job Name
  • Job System Name

 

It is very easy to save all of your spooled files if you are using the Go Save menu options. These Save menu options include Option 21 to Save the entire system, Option 22 to Save system data only, and Option 23 to Save all user data. Simply change the Spooled file data parameter to *ALL to save the spooled file data for the output queues that are saved. 

 

If you are using the Save Library (SAVLIB) or Save Object (SAVOBJ) commands, simply specify SPLFDTA(*ALL). For each output queue that is saved, all available spooled file data is saved. 

 

If you are using Backup Recovery and Media Services (BRMS) to save spooled file data and upgrade to V5R4 or higher, BRMS will automatically use the new native save function to save spooled files. This will provide you with a performance benefit over the previous method BRMS used to save spooled file data.

 

When restoring your spooled files using the Save menu options, the Spooled file data parameter uses the default of *NEW. If you do not wish to restore your save spooled files, simply change the Spooled file data parameter to *NONE. Likewise, on the Restore Library (RSTLIB) and Restore Object (RSTOBJ) commands, the Spooled file data parameter has the default of *NEW.

 

To ensure a complete backup and recovery strategy, consider making use of these parameters to save spooled file data.   

Backing Up IBM i on Power Blade

Saving and restoring IBM i running on a Power blade is similar to doing so on other Power servers. You have the choice to use either a standalone LTO4 SAS attached tape device or a fiber channel attached tape library with LTO4 tape devices. The tape devices are recognized on the IBM i LPAR and use the same naming conventions as with any other IBM i environment. This allows you to use either the native IBM i save commands or BRMS to implement your backup and recovery strategy.

 

For either backup option, the physical adapters connecting the tape devices are owned by the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS). A different type of I/O virtualization is used in each case, but they both result in the tape device being available on IBM i as if the device was physically attached to the IBM i LPAR. The standalone LTO4 SAS attached tape device uses virtual SCSI so that the tape device first becomes available in VIOS and is then assigned to IBM i using the Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM).The fiber channel attached tape library uses N-Port ID Virtualization (NPIV) so that the tape device from the tape library is directly mapped to IBM i on the Storage Area Network (SAN) with VIOS managing the physical fiber channel adapter in a passthrough method.

Integrated Virtual Tape Support

Integrated Virtual Tape support with IBM i is technology that is entirely unique to IBM i. It is completely integrated into the operating system and makes use of the disk on the system. This technology is built upon the image catalog support provided for optical "virtual devices." The virtual tape environment behaves just as if there were real tape drives with physical tape media. It is a simulated tape environment consisting of the following:

 

  • Virtual tape drives (up to 35)
  • Virtual tape media (256 maximum per image catalog)
  • One or more image catalogs to hold virtual tapes (known as image catalog entries)

 

Virtual tape is used just as you use real physical tape media. The save and restore commands, along with the Display Tape (DSPTAP) and Check Tape (CHKTAP) commands, behave in the same manner with virtual tape as with physical tape. Because virtual tape resides on your system, you still need to duplicate your virtual tape saves to physical tape media for disaster recovery.

 

There are some key advantages with using virtual tape:

 

May be faster than saving to physical tape

  • Similar performance as save files
  • Best performance in separate ASP

 

Eliminates save file restrictions

  • One library per save file
  • SAVSYS not supported on save file
  • Parallel saves not supported on save file
  • One TB size limitation on save file

 

Eliminates tape/media error limitations

  • Saves will not end due to tape device or media errors
  • Once save-while-active checkpoint reached, can't restart due to tape device or media errors

 

Duplication to physical media

  • When tape devices available
  • At your convenience

 

On site and off site storage

  • Keep virtual volumes on system as needed
  • Keep duplicated volumes on site

 

If you are only looking for a performance advantage, you will probably not see a performance improvement compared to saving directly to TS1120/TS1130 or LTO3/LTO4/LTO5 tape technology. Along with the advantages of virtual tape, there are also some key items to take into consideration when deciding if virtual tape will be a good solution in your environment. The main consideration will be the amount of additional disk required to perform saves to virtual tape. For example, if you want to save 500 GB of data, you will need another 500 GB of additional disk plus about 3 percent more for the tape headers to perform the save to virtual tape.

 

Here are some additional considerations:

 

Disaster recovery

  • No install from SAVSYS virtual media
  • D-IPL install from physical media only 

 

Data compaction not supported

 

Data compression supported but

  • Very low compression
  • Significant impact on performance

 

It is a good idea to carefully test prior to implementing a virtual tape solution. 

Encrypting Your Backups

Due to regulatory compliance needs, many customers now have requirements to encrypt their backup tapes. IBM's BRMS product supports backup encryption starting with IBM i 6.1. For encryption support, you will need to install BRMS, including the Advanced feature of BRMS along with the Encrypted Backup Enablement feature, which is Option 44 of the operating system. With BRMS software encryption, you cannot encrypt the operating system, which includes the *SAVSYS, *SAVSYSINF, *SAVSECDTA, and *SAVCFG special values. You also cannot encrypt any libraries that begin with a "Q," such as the QBRM, QUSRBRM, QSYS2, QGPL, and QUSRSYS libraries. There is a performance overhead when performing software encryption. You should expect your saves to take twice as long.

 

The alternative to software encryption without the restrictions and without performance impacts is to use hardware encryption for your backups with a fiber attached LTO4/LTO5 or TS1120/TS1130 tape library. These tape devices, which provide library-managed encryption, must reside in a tape library.

 

In addition to an encryption-capable tape device, you need to have a Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager (TKLM) server. The TKLM server runs on a variety of platforms and supports many IBM operating systems along with non-IBM operating systems.

 

For disaster recovery, you need to either run a TKLM server or be prepared to recover your TKLM server before recovering your IBM i encrypted backups. You also need to ensure that your disaster recovery site can either let you have your TKLM server on site or provide access to a server for you to recover your TKLM environment. Be sure to run your TKLM on a server or LPAR where none of the saves are encrypted. At your recovery site, you also need the same type of encryption-capable tape device (e.g., TS1120, TS1130, LTO4, LTO5 ) in a tape library. 

Backing Up the Hardware Management Console

Your Hardware Management Console (HMC) needs to be backed up separately from your IBM i system. Using the HMC, you can back up all important data, such as the following:

 

  • User-preference files
  • User information
  • HMC platform-configuration files
  • HMC log files
  • HMC updates through Install Corrective Service

 

The Backup function is used to save the HMC data stored on the HMC hard disk to the following:

 

  •   DVD media
  •   USB Flash Memory Device
  •   Remote system mounted to the HMC file system (such as NFS)
  •   Remote site through FTP

 

You should back up the HMC after you have made changes to the HMC or to the information associated with your logical partitions.

 

Note: Before data can be saved to removable media, the media must be formatted. To format media, click HMC Management > Format Media and follow the steps.

 

To back up the HMC, you must be a member of one of the following roles:

 

  • Super administrator
  • Operator
  • Service representative

 

To back up the HMC critical data, perform the following steps:

 

  1. In the Navigation area, click HMC Management.
  2. Select Back up HMC Data.
  3. Select an archive option. You can back up to media on the local system, back up to a mounted remote system, or send backup data to a remote site.
  4. Follow the instructions on the window to back up the data.

 

Recovery for Physical and Logical Files

A very key backup and recovery enhancement that was implemented with IBM i 6.1 is one that users have been waiting quite some time for and benefits any system recovery. When you have physical files and logical files in different libraries, the physical file needs to be restored first; otherwise, the logical file does not restore. A second restore to restore the logicals can be very painful and take a significant amount of your valuable recovery time. This recovery situation is now fixed with IBM i 6.1. If you're restoring your system with RESTORE  Menu Options 21, 22, or 23 or if you're using the RSTLIB command with *NONSYS, *IBM, or *ALLUSR, or if you're using BRMS to recover your system, there are no additional steps and neither is there additional time required to restore the missed logicals.

Testing Your Backup and Recovery Strategy

To complete your backup strategy implementation, remember that the most important piece is to test your system recovery strategy. You should at a minimum test your complete recovery strategy once a year.

 

as/400, os/400, iseries, system i, i5/os, ibm i, power systems, 6.1, 7.1, V7,

Debbie Saugen

Debbie Saugen is the technical owner of IBM i Backup and Recovery in IBM's Rochester, Minnesota, Development Lab. She is also a senior recovery architect/consultant with IBM Business Continuity and Resiliency Services. Debbie enjoys sharing her knowledge by speaking at COMMON, technical conferences, and business continuity and resiliency conferences and writing for various magazines and Web sites.

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    DDL SystemsDownload the technical whitepaper on MANAGING YOUR IBM i WIRELESSLY and (optionally) register to download an absolutely FREE software trail. This whitepaper provides an in-depth review of the native IBM i technology and ACO MONITOR's advanced two-way messaging features to remotely manage your IBM i while in or away from the office. Notify on-duty personnel of system events and remotely respond to complex problems (via your Smartphone) before they become critical-24/7. Problem solved!

    Order your copy here.

  • DR Strategy Guide from Maxava: Brand New Edition - now fully updated to include Cloud!

    SB Maxava PPL 5476PRACTICAL TOOLS TO IMPLEMENT DISASTER RECOVERY IN YOUR IBM i ENVIRONMENT

    CLOUD VS. ON-PREMISE?
    - COMPREHENSIVE CHECKLISTS
    - RISK COST CALCULATIONS
    - BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK
    - DR SOLUTIONS OVERVIEW
    - RFP BUILDER
    Download your free copy of DR Strategy Guide for IBM i from Maxava today.

     

  • White Paper: Node.js for Enterprise IBM i Modernization

    SB Profound WP 5539

    If your business is thinking about modernizing your legacy IBM i (also known as AS/400 or iSeries) applications, you will want to read this white paper first!

    Download this paper and learn how Node.js can ensure that you:
    - Modernize on-time and budget - no more lengthy, costly, disruptive app rewrites!
    - Retain your IBM i systems of record
    - Find and hire new development talent
    - Integrate new Node.js applications with your existing RPG, Java, .Net, and PHP apps
    - Extend your IBM i capabilties to include Watson API, Cloud, and Internet of Things


    Read Node.js for Enterprise IBM i Modernization Now!

     

  • 2020 IBM i Marketplace Survey Results

    HelpSystems

    This year marks the sixth edition of the popular IBM i Marketplace Survey Results. Each year, HelpSystems sets out to gather data about how businesses use the IBM i platform and the IT initiatives it supports. Year over year, the survey has begun to reveal long-term trends that give insight into the future of this trusted technology.

    More than 500 IBM i users from around the globe participated in this year’s survey, and we’re so happy to share the results with you. We hope you’ll find the information interesting and useful as you evaluate your own IT projects.

  • AIX Security Basics eCourse

    Core Security

    With so many organizations depending on AIX day to day, ensuring proper security and configuration is critical to ensure the safety of your environment. Don’t let common threats put your critical AIX servers at risk. Avoid simple mistakes and start to build a long-term plan with this AIX Security eCourse. Enroll today to get easy to follow instructions on topics like:

    • Removing extraneous files
    • Patching systems efficiently
    • Setting and validating permissions
    • Managing service considerations
    • Getting overall visibility into your networks

     

  • Developer Kit: Making a Business Case for Modernization and Beyond

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.

    Having trouble getting management approval for modernization projects? The problem may be you're not speaking enough "business" to them.

    This Developer Kit provides you study-backed data and a ready-to-use business case template to help get your very next development project approved!

  • What to Do When Your AS/400 Talent Retires

    HelpSystemsIT managers hoping to find new IBM i talent are discovering that the pool of experienced RPG programmers and operators or administrators is small.

    This guide offers strategies and software suggestions to help you plan IT staffing and resources and smooth the transition after your AS/400 talent retires. Read on to learn:

    • Why IBM i skills depletion is a top concern
    • How leading organizations are coping
    • Where automation will make the biggest impact

     

  • IBM i Resources Retiring?

    SB HelpSystems WC GenericLet’s face it: IBM i experts and RPG programmers are retiring from the workforce. Are you prepared to handle their departure?
    Our panel of IBM i experts—Chuck Losinski, Robin Tatam, Richard Schoen, and Tom Huntington—will outline strategies that allow your company to cope with IBM i skills depletion by adopting these strategies that allow you to get the job done without deep expertise on the OS:
    - Automate IBM i processes
    - Use managed services to help fill the gaps
    - Secure the system against data loss and viruses
    The strategies you discover in this webinar will help you ensure that your system of record—your IBM i—continues to deliver a powerful business advantage, even as staff retires.

     

  • Backup and Recovery Considerations for Security Data and Encrypted Backups

    SB PowerTech WC GenericSecurity expert Carol Woodbury is joined by Debbie Saugen. Debbie is an expert on IBM i backup and recovery, disaster recovery, and high availability, helping IBM i shops build and implement effective business continuity plans.
    In today’s business climate, business continuity is more important than ever. But 83 percent of organizations are not totally confident in their backup strategy.
    During this webinar, Carol and Debbie discuss the importance of a good backup plan, how to ensure you’re backing up your security information, and your options for encrypted back-ups.

  • Profound.js: The Agile Approach to Legacy Modernization

    SB Profound WC GenericIn this presentation, Alex Roytman and Liam Allan will unveil a completely new and unique way to modernize your legacy applications. Learn how Agile Modernization:
    - Uses the power of Node.js in place of costly system re-writes and migrations
    - Enables you to modernize legacy systems in an iterative, low-risk manner
    - Makes it easier to hire developers for your modernization efforts
    - Integrates with Profound UI (GUI modernization) for a seamless, end-to-end legacy modernization solution

     

  • Data Breaches: Is IBM i Really at Risk?

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIBM i is known for its security, but this OS could be more vulnerable than you think.
    Although Power Servers often live inside the safety of the perimeter firewall, the risk of suffering a data leak or data corruption remains high.
    Watch noted IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he discusses common ways that this supposedly “secure” operating system may actually be vulnerable and who the culprits might be.

    Watch the webinar today!

     

  • Easy Mobile Development

    SB Profound WC GenericWatch this on-demand webinar and learn how to rapidly and easily deploy mobile apps to your organization – even when working with legacy RPG code! IBM Champion Scott Klement will demonstrate how to:
    - Develop RPG applications without mobile development experience
    - Deploy secure applications for any mobile device
    - Build one application for all platforms, including Apple and Android
    - Extend the life and reach of your IBM i (aka iSeries, AS400) platform
    You’ll see examples from customers who have used our products and services to deliver the mobile applications of their dreams, faster and easier than they ever thought possible!

     

  • Profound UI: Unlock True Modernization from your IBM i Enterprise

    SB Profound PPL 5491Modern, web-based applications can make your Enterprise more efficient, connected and engaged. This session will demonstrate how the Profound UI framework is the best and most native way to convert your existing RPG applications and develop new modern applications for your business. Additionally, you will learn how you can address modernization across your Enterprise, including databases and legacy source code, with Profound Logic.

  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.

    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.

    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).

  • 5 New and Unique Ways to Use the IBM i Audit Journal

    SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericYou must be asking yourself: am I doing everything I can to protect my organization’s data? Tune in as our panel of IBM i high availability experts discuss:


    - Why companies don’t test role swaps when they know they should
    - Whether high availability in the cloud makes sense for IBM i users
    - Why some organizations don’t have high availability yet
    - How to get high availability up and running at your organization
    - High availability considerations for today’s security concerns

  • Profound.js 2.0: Extend the Power of Node to your IBM i Applications

    SB Profound WC 5541In this Webinar, we'll demonstrate how Profound.js 2.0 enables you to easily adopt Node.js in your business, and to take advantage of the many benefits of Node, including access to a much larger pool of developers for IBM i and access to countless reusable open source code packages on npm (Node Package Manager).
    You will see how Profound.js 2.0 allows you to:

    • Provide RPG-like capabilities for server-side JavaScript.
    • Easily create web and mobile application interfaces for Node on IBM i.
    • Let existing RPG programs call Node.js modules directly, and vice versa.
    • Automatically generate code for Node.js.
    • Automatically converts existing RPGLE code into clean, simplified Node.js code.

    Download and watch today!

     

  • Make Modern Apps You'll Love with Profound UI & Profound.js

    SB Profound WC 5541Whether you have green screens or a drab GUI, your outdated apps can benefit from modern source code, modern GUIs, and modern tools.
    Profound Logic's Alex Roytman and Liam Allan are here to show you how Free-format RPG and Node.js make it possible to deliver applications your whole business will love:

    • Transform legacy RPG code to modern free-format RPG and Node.js
    • Deliver truly modern application interfaces with Profound UI
    • Extend your RPG applications to include Web Services and NPM packages with Node.js

     

  • Accelerating Programmer Productivity with Sequel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic

    Most business intelligence tools are just that: tools, a means to an end but not an accelerator. Yours could even be slowing you down. But what if your BI tool didn't just give you a platform for query-writing but also improved programmer productivity?
    Watch the recorded webinar to see how Sequel:

    • Makes creating complex results simple
    • Eliminates barriers to data sources
    • Increases flexibility with data usage and distribution

    Accelerated productivity makes everyone happy, from programmer to business user.

  • Business Intelligence is Changing: Make Your Game Plan

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIt’s time to develop a strategy that will help you meet your informational challenges head-on. Watch the webinar to learn how to set your IT department up for business intelligence success. You’ll learn how the right data access tool will help you:

    • Access IBM i data faster
    • Deliver useful information to executives and business users
    • Empower users with secure data access

    Ready to make your game plan and finally keep up with your data access requests?

     

  • Controlling Insider Threats on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericLet’s face facts: servers don’t hack other servers. Despite the avalanche of regulations, news headlines remain chock full of stories about data breaches, all initiated by insiders or intruders masquerading as insiders.
    User profiles are often duplicated or restored and are rarely reviewed for the appropriateness of their current configuration. This increases the risk of the profile being able to access data without the intended authority or having privileges that should be reserved for administrators.
    Watch security expert Robin Tatam as he discusses a new approach for onboarding new users on IBM i and best-practices techniques for managing and monitoring activities after they sign on.

  • Don't Just Settle for Query/400...

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWhile introducing Sequel Data Access, we’ll address common frustrations with Query/400, discuss major data access, distribution trends, and more advanced query tools. Plus, you’ll learn how a tool like Sequel lightens IT’s load by:

    - Accessing real-time data, so you can make real-time decisions
    - Providing run-time prompts, so users can help themselves
    - Delivering instant results in Microsoft Excel and PDF, without the wait
    - Automating the query process with on-demand data, dashboards, and scheduled jobs

  • How to Manage Documents the Easy Way

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWhat happens when your company depends on an outdated document management strategy?
    Everything is harder.
    You don’t need to stick with status quo anymore.
    Watch the webinar to learn how to put effective document management into practice and:

    • Capture documents faster, instead of wasting everyone’s time
    • Manage documents easily, so you can always find them
    • Distribute documents automatically, and move on to the next task

     

  • Lessons Learned from the AS/400 Breach

    SB_PowerTech_WC_GenericGet actionable info to avoid becoming the next cyberattack victim.
    In “Data breach digest—Scenarios from the field,” Verizon documented an AS/400 security breach. Whether you call it AS/400, iSeries, or IBM i, you now have proof that the system has been breached.
    Watch IBM i security expert Robin Tatam give an insightful discussion of the issues surrounding this specific scenario.
    Robin will also draw on his extensive cybersecurity experience to discuss policies, processes, and configuration details that you can implement to help reduce the risk of your system being the next victim of an attack.

  • Overwhelmed by Operating Systems?

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this 30-minute recorded webinar, our experts demonstrate how you can:

    • Manage multiple platforms from a central location
    • View monitoring results in a single pane of glass on your desktop or mobile device
    • Take advantage of best practice, plug-and-play monitoring templates
    • Create rules to automate daily checks across your entire infrastructure
    • Receive notification if something is wrong or about to go wrong

    This presentation includes a live demo of Network Server Suite.

     

  • Real-Time Disk Monitoring with Robot Monitor

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericYou need to know when IBM i disk space starts to disappear and where it has gone before system performance and productivity start to suffer. Our experts will show you how Robot Monitor can help you pinpoint exactly when your auxiliary storage starts to disappear and why, so you can start taking a proactive approach to disk monitoring and analysis. You’ll also get insight into:

    • The main sources of disk consumption
    • How to monitor temporary storage and QTEMP objects in real time
    • How to monitor objects and libraries in real time and near-real time
    • How to track long-term disk trends

     

     

  • Stop Re-keying Data Between IBM I and Other Applications

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericMany business still depend on RPG for their daily business processes and report generation.Wouldn’t it be nice if you could stop re-keying data between IBM i and other applications? Or if you could stop replicating data and start processing orders faster? Or what if you could automatically extract data from existing reports instead of re-keying? It’s all possible. Watch this webinar to learn about:

    • The data dilemma
    • 3 ways to stop re-keying data
    • Data automation in practice

    Plus, see how HelpSystems data automation software will help you stop re-keying data.

     

  • The Top Five RPG Open Access Myths....BUSTED!

    SB_Profound_WC_GenericWhen it comes to IBM Rational Open Access: RPG Edition, there are still many misconceptions - especially where application modernization is concerned!

    In this Webinar, we'll address some of the biggest myths about RPG Open Access, including:

    • Modernizing with RPG OA requires significant changes to the source code
    • The RPG language is outdated and impractical for modernizing applications
    • Modernizing with RPG OA is the equivalent to "screen scraping"

     

  • Time to Remove the Paper from Your Desk and Become More Efficient

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericToo much paper is wasted. Attempts to locate documents in endless filing cabinets.And distributing documents is expensive and takes up far too much time.
    These are just three common reasons why it might be time for your company to implement a paperless document management system.
    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally

     

  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic

    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days

     

  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

  • Comply in 5! Well, actually UNDER 5 minutes!!

    SB CYBRA PPL 5382

    TRY the one package that solves all your document design and printing challenges on all your platforms.

    Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product.

    Request your trial now!

  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.