Sidebar

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP

Linux / Open Source
Typography
  • Smaller Small Medium Big Bigger
  • Default Helvetica Segoe Georgia Times

P stands for PHP, the programming language of LAMP.

Two earlier articles of this series (here and here) walked you through the first two videos from Catherine Gaughan-Smith's fantastic tutorial series on installing a virtual Ubuntu LAMP stack. The third video in her series walks you through configuring both PHP and MySQL. These are both relatively large, important steps that most of us green-screen folks have never even had to think about, so I'm going to devote one article to each step. Today, we focus on configuring PHP.

PHP: The ILE of the LAMP stack

Well, not really, since it's just one language. But it's very similar: on the IBM i, we write programs using ILE languages, and on Linux (and specifically in configurations based on the LAMP stack), we use PHP. If you're serious about learning about the world of LAMP stacks and web serving in the Linux world, you're going to have to become proficient with PHP.

One problem with learning PHP is having an environment to work with. You can find PHP hosts on the web or, as I just mentioned, you can even install PHP on the IBM i, but in those cases you are sort of at the mercy of whoever installed and is currently managing the PHP environment. In fact, that was one of the primary motivations for me for this entire series of articles: I wanted my own PHP environment that I could play with without having to worry about any limitations. At the same time, I didn't want to take a chance of blowing up my home machine, so until now PHP has been just sort of an intellectual curiosity for me. But once I realized that I could create a virtual machine that would entirely insulate my Windows environment from my Linux work, then suddenly PHP became a reality.

Back to the Tutorials!

And that brings us back to Catherine Gaughan-Smith's third video. In this 16-minute piece, Catherine walks you through the basic configuration of both PHP and MySQL on the virtual LAMP machine she helped you create in the first two videos. Today I'll guide you along the first ten and a half minutes, which focus solely on PHP. The rest of the video centers on MySQL and, since my path of using Eclipse PDT diverges quite sharply from hers, I'm going to leave that part of the tutorial to the next article.

The basic outline of the PHP portion consists of roughly eight parts. The first 30 seconds are a recap and a reintroduction to her Mac-based SSH terminal. She also mentions the PuTTY application for Windows, but if you've been following along, you know I use Eclipse PDT instead. I'll review that later. Continuing on with the video, she next uses the native Linux editor nano to create an introductory PHP page and show it in the browser via the Apache server. We'll do the same, but in PDT. Next, she creates an error page as part of a larger effort to improve PHP error reporting, which is especially important in a development environment. Catherine creates an error page, ending at the 3:00 mark, and then introduces you to the PHP configuration files, which takes you to 4:00. Next, she walks you through configuring the PHP environment using a custom configuration file. She uses nano, but as I explained in the previous article, we'll use the vi editor via the terminal view in PDT. Catherine then creates a log file in the standard Linux log folder, /var/log, taking you to the 7:00 mark. The next two minutes, to 9:00, focus on enabling some additional PHP files. The final portion of the video that I'll be concentrating on in this article, up to 10:30, simply shows the result of the error configuration that we did in the earlier steps. This leaves us with a working PHP environment that just needs a database to complete the installation.

Adapting to Our PDT Environment

If you've been working with these articles, you know that one of the biggest differences between Catherine's videos and my project is that, while Catherine works from tools on her Mac desktop, I instead use the Eclipse PHP Development Tools (PDT) as my IDE. The goal was to be able to do all my development work within a single platform-independent environment. PDT addresses those needs very well. And also, it's free, which is another project requirement. However, that means that in some places we have to do things a little differently, and this part of the article identifies where we diverge.

It starts pretty quickly. The first thing Catherine does is create an introductory page in PHP. Not exactly a Hello World page, the info.php page uses a standard PHP function to dump a whole bunch of very useful information about the PHP environment. Catherine uses her Mac-based SSH terminal program to do this, but we'll do it using PDT. These next steps are, in fact, one of the major reasons that I went in this direction. In a previous life, I spent a lot of time writing UNIX code and in so doing grew to really dislike the constant switching from one folder to another. UNIX experts can do this almost without thought, but not being a UNIX expert, I find myself flailing around from directory to directory using the cd and ls commands like a white cane to see where I am. So, the first thing Catherine does is change her current directory to one called /var/www/html. The Linux-literate will immediately recognize that folder, but for you and I it's just a bit of word salad. It turns out this tends to be the standard root of an Apache web server in Linux, and so is a well-known folder name. To me, it's sort of like knowing that QUSRWRK is the primary subsystem for many IBM i services or that QGPL is the default folder for temporary objects. In any event, if you plan to do web development from the command line in Linux, you'll want to remember that folder name because you'll be there all the time.

But I have a trick up my sleeve! I’m going to use PDT, and I'm going to create something called a filter, which will act as an easy shortcut for me to get to that folder and the files within it. Let's do that, shall we?

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 1 

Figure 1: Expand the Sftp Files entry under your SSH connection.

From previous articles you should already have an SSH connection to your test machine, which in my case I called Test 1. Under that connection should be an entry for Sftp Files. If you have that, you can expand it and you'll see two default entries, one for My Home, which is the home directory for the user you used to log into the server, and Root, which is the root of the entire machine. You have access to all of this because you should have logged on with the administrator profile you created all the way back in the first article. Specifically in the article on Apache, we used this technique to drill all the way down into the /var/www/html folder to create a new index.html page.

We could do that again, but if you recall, it was a little cumbersome. Instead, we want to be able to get to the /var/www/html folder quickly. To do that, we create a filter.

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 2 

Figure 2: Create a filter using the context (right-click) menu from the Sftp Files object.

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 3 

Figure 3: Enter the folder name /var/www/html and leave the rest of the defaults.

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 4 

Figure 4: You may want to override the default with something more meaningful.

It's straightforward. Right-click on the Sftp Files object and select New > Filter… from the context menu. On the first dialog, enter the fully qualified name of the folder you want to access, and hit Next. The second dialog will default the filter's name to the last folder in your fully qualified name (that is, for /var/www/html, the default filter name will be html). I prefer to use the fully qualified name in the cases where there are conflicts, or you could use something meaningful like "Apache HTML folder." It's up to you. But once you hit Finish, you'll now have a shortcut. And if you expand that entry, you should see two files: index.html and index (old).html.

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 5 

Figure 5: Expanding the filter shows the index.html we created and the index (old).html we renamed.

So starting at about 0:30 in the video, Catherine changes her current directory to the /var/www/html directory and then invokes nano to create the new file. You can bypass all that by simply right-clicking on the filter you created and selecting New > File….

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 6 

Figure 6: Use New > File… to bring up the New File dialog, and enter the file name info.php.

This will create a new file named info.php, which you can then double-click on to bring up the PHP editor. The nice thing is that you are automatically placed into the PHP editor, and as soon as you type <?, the editor knows you're doing a PHP command and auto-completes the entire angle keyword .

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 7 

Figure 7: The PHP editor will auto-complete the PHP tag as soon as you type <?.

Now just finish typing in the phpinfo(); call. Note that if double-clicking doesn't automatically bring up the PHP editor, you may need to force it the first time by using the context menu. Right-click on info.php and select Open With > PHP Editor to bring up the PHP editor. Once that's done, you'll be in the PHP editor.

Practical Linux: P Is for PHP - Figure 8 

Figure 8: Finish the code, hit Ctrl+S to save, and you're done!

The point is that not only can you get to the files quickly, but you also have a PHP-aware editor available to you. I think it's well worth the effort of diverging from Catherine's otherwise fantastic tutorial. In the next section, you'll use the same technique to create the errors.php page. Once again, you'll be in the PHP editor, which will help you with lots of auto-correct as you type in the simple PHP page.

Next, you switch back to the terminal view. Remember, this is just another window in PDT; you never leave the IDE. Follow along with her instructions right up until roughly the 3:55 mark, where she uses the sudoedit command to create a new file, custom.ini.

Ubuntu is very picky about not allowing you to edit configuration files, much the same way that you can't do certain things on the IBM i without special permissions. I could fix that by using the Linux version of permissions (the chmod command), but for now I'm just going to continue to do it using the more brute force method of using vi in the terminal. Although vi is not a very friendly editor, since editing configuration files is not something you should do casually, I think this is a reasonable compromise. When we move to more advanced Linux configuration, I may use a different technique.

Anyway, instead of sudoedit nano mods-available/custom.ini, you'll use the command sudo vi mods-available/custom.ini and then use the vi editor to enter the configuration. After that, you can then continue to follow her instructions all the way to the 10:30 point, which encompasses the entirety of the PHP configuration. You've now successfully installed and configured PHP and are ready to move on to MySQL!

And while MySQL will have to wait until the next article, you are free to move ahead with PHP. Feel free to find any PHP tutorial information, such as the ones I pointed to earlier, and use the PDT editor to create PHP files to your heart's content. This should give you plenty of opportunity to learn PHP basics until our next article. Enjoy!

 

 

Joe Pluta

Joe Pluta is the founder and chief architect of Pluta Brothers Design, Inc. He has been extending the IBM midrange since the days of the IBM System/3. Joe uses WebSphere extensively, especially as the base for PSC/400, the only product that can move your legacy systems to the Web using simple green-screen commands. He has written several books, including Developing Web 2.0 Applications with EGL for IBM i, E-Deployment: The Fastest Path to the Web, Eclipse: Step by Step, and WDSC: Step by Step. Joe performs onsite mentoring and speaks at user groups around the country. You can reach him at joepluta@plutabrothers.com.


MC Press books written by Joe Pluta available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

Developing Web 2.0 Applications with EGL for IBM i Developing Web 2.0 Applications with EGL for IBM i
Joe Pluta introduces you to EGL Rich UI and IBM’s Rational Developer for the IBM i platform.
List Price $39.95

Now On Sale

WDSC: Step by Step WDSC: Step by Step
Discover incredibly powerful WDSC with this easy-to-understand yet thorough introduction.
List Price $74.95

Now On Sale

Eclipse: Step by Step Eclipse: Step by Step
Quickly get up to speed and productivity using Eclipse.
List Price $59.00

Now On Sale

More Articles By This Author
Related Articles
BLOG COMMENTS POWERED BY DISQUS

LATEST COMMENTS

Support MC Press Online

RESOURCE CENTER

  • WHITE PAPERS

  • WEBCAST

  • TRIAL SOFTWARE

  • White Paper: Node.js for Enterprise IBM i Modernization

    SB Profound WP 5539

    If your business is thinking about modernizing your legacy IBM i (also known as AS/400 or iSeries) applications, you will want to read this white paper first!

    Download this paper and learn how Node.js can ensure that you:
    - Modernize on-time and budget - no more lengthy, costly, disruptive app rewrites!
    - Retain your IBM i systems of record
    - Find and hire new development talent
    - Integrate new Node.js applications with your existing RPG, Java, .Net, and PHP apps
    - Extend your IBM i capabilties to include Watson API, Cloud, and Internet of Things


    Read Node.js for Enterprise IBM i Modernization Now!

     

  • Profound Logic Solution Guide

    SB Profound WP 5539More than ever, there is a demand for IT to deliver innovation.
    Your IBM i has been an essential part of your business operations for years. However, your organization may struggle to maintain the current system and implement new projects.
    The thousands of customers we've worked with and surveyed state that expectations regarding the digital footprint and vision of the companyare not aligned with the current IT environment.

    Get your copy of this important guide today!

     

  • 2022 IBM i Marketplace Survey Results

    Fortra2022 marks the eighth edition of the IBM i Marketplace Survey Results. Each year, Fortra captures data on how businesses use the IBM i platform and the IT and cybersecurity initiatives it supports.

    Over the years, this survey has become a true industry benchmark, revealing to readers the trends that are shaping and driving the market and providing insight into what the future may bring for this technology.

  • Brunswick bowls a perfect 300 with LANSA!

    FortraBrunswick is the leader in bowling products, services, and industry expertise for the development and renovation of new and existing bowling centers and mixed-use recreation facilities across the entertainment industry. However, the lifeblood of Brunswick’s capital equipment business was running on a 15-year-old software application written in Visual Basic 6 (VB6) with a SQL Server back-end. The application was at the end of its life and needed to be replaced.
    With the help of Visual LANSA, they found an easy-to-use, long-term platform that enabled their team to collaborate, innovate, and integrate with existing systems and databases within a single platform.
    Read the case study to learn how they achieved success and increased the speed of development by 30% with Visual LANSA.

     

  • Progressive Web Apps: Create a Universal Experience Across All Devices

    LANSAProgressive Web Apps allow you to reach anyone, anywhere, and on any device with a single unified codebase. This means that your applications—regardless of browser, device, or platform—instantly become more reliable and consistent. They are the present and future of application development, and more and more businesses are catching on.
    Download this whitepaper and learn:

    • How PWAs support fast application development and streamline DevOps
    • How to give your business a competitive edge using PWAs
    • What makes progressive web apps so versatile, both online and offline

     

     

  • The Power of Coding in a Low-Code Solution

    LANSAWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed.
    Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

    • Discover the benefits of Low-code's quick application creation
    • Understand the differences in model-based and language-based Low-Code platforms
    • Explore the strengths of LANSA's Low-Code Solution to Low-Code’s biggest drawbacks

     

     

  • Why Migrate When You Can Modernize?

    LANSABusiness users want new applications now. Market and regulatory pressures require faster application updates and delivery into production. Your IBM i developers may be approaching retirement, and you see no sure way to fill their positions with experienced developers. In addition, you may be caught between maintaining your existing applications and the uncertainty of moving to something new.
    In this white paper, you’ll learn how to think of these issues as opportunities rather than problems. We’ll explore motivations to migrate or modernize, their risks and considerations you should be aware of before embarking on a (migration or modernization) project.
    Lastly, we’ll discuss how modernizing IBM i applications with optimized business workflows, integration with other technologies and new mobile and web user interfaces will enable IT – and the business – to experience time-added value and much more.

     

  • UPDATED: Developer Kit: Making a Business Case for Modernization and Beyond

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Having trouble getting management approval for modernization projects? The problem may be you're not speaking enough "business" to them.

    This Developer Kit provides you study-backed data and a ready-to-use business case template to help get your very next development project approved!

  • What to Do When Your AS/400 Talent Retires

    FortraIT managers hoping to find new IBM i talent are discovering that the pool of experienced RPG programmers and operators or administrators is small.

    This guide offers strategies and software suggestions to help you plan IT staffing and resources and smooth the transition after your AS/400 talent retires. Read on to learn:

    • Why IBM i skills depletion is a top concern
    • How leading organizations are coping
    • Where automation will make the biggest impact

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Encryption on IBM i Simplified

    SB PowerTech WC GenericDB2 Field Procedures (FieldProcs) were introduced in IBM i 7.1 and have greatly simplified encryption, often without requiring any application changes. Now you can quickly encrypt sensitive data on the IBM i including PII, PCI, PHI data in your physical files and tables.
    Watch this webinar to learn how you can quickly implement encryption on the IBM i. During the webinar, security expert Robin Tatam will show you how to:

    • Use Field Procedures to automate encryption and decryption
    • Restrict and mask field level access by user or group
    • Meet compliance requirements with effective key management and audit trails

     

  • Lessons Learned from IBM i Cyber Attacks

    SB PowerTech WC GenericDespite the many options IBM has provided to protect your systems and data, many organizations still struggle to apply appropriate security controls.
    In this webinar, you'll get insight into how the criminals accessed these systems, the fallout from these attacks, and how the incidents could have been avoided by following security best practices.

    • Learn which security gaps cyber criminals love most
    • Find out how other IBM i organizations have fallen victim
    • Get the details on policies and processes you can implement to protect your organization, even when staff works from home

    You will learn the steps you can take to avoid the mistakes made in these examples, as well as other inadequate and misconfigured settings that put businesses at risk.

     

     

  • The Power of Coding in a Low-Code Solution

    SB PowerTech WC GenericWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed.
    Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

    • Discover the benefits of Low-code's quick application creation
    • Understand the differences in model-based and language-based Low-Code platforms
    • Explore the strengths of LANSA's Low-Code Solution to Low-Code’s biggest drawbacks

     

     

  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    SB Profound WC GenericHave you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
    Watch Now.

  • The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

    SB Profound WC Generic The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
    Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
    Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
    Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
    This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
    Watch Now.

  • Comply in 5! Well, actually UNDER 5 minutes!!

    SB CYBRA PPL 5382

    TRY the one package that solves all your document design and printing challenges on all your platforms.

    Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product.

    Request your trial now!

  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    FortraRobot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    FortraRobot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.