TechTalk July 1999

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And Now a Word on Dependency...

Q: Would you explain functional dependency as it pertains to database design?

— Sean White This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A: Functional dependency means that the value of one field can be determined from the value of another. For example, suppose a customer master file has the following fields:

• Customer number (key)
• Customer name
• Street address
• City
• State abbreviation
• State name This file has an undesirable functional dependency. State name is functionally dependent on state abbreviation. For example, any record with state abbreviation TX must have state name Texas. All other fields are functionally dependent on customer number, but that’s OK and desirable because customer number is the key.

A file is normalized when all fields are functionally dependent only on the key. To normalize this file, you should divide it into two files:

File 1:
• Customer master file
• Customer number (key)
• Customer name
• Street address
• City
• State abbreviation

File 2:
• State master file
• State abbreviation (key)
• State name

The state name is no longer stored in the customer master file but is stored in a state master file. Now, if you want to know the name of the state in which a customer lives, take

the state abbreviation in the customer master file and find the matching state abbreviation in the state master file. This process is called joining. I have given you only a brief explanation. You can use a search engine on the Web to find more information.

— Ted Holt Senior Technical Editor

Midrange Computing

Show Me What You’ve Got!

If you’re used to using Retrieve CL Source (RTVCLSRC) to retrieve the source for Original Program Model (OPM) CL programs and you’ve tried it on ILE CL modules, you’ve found that it doesn’t work for this new object type. It’s true that RTVCLSRC works only with OPM CL programs. However, you can get the source for ILE CL modules. If you have created the module with the DBGVIEW parameter value of *ALL or *LIST, you can retrieve the source by starting a debug and manually copying the lines.

— David Morris This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Editor’s Note: This technique works for all ILE languages, not just CL.

Can a Leopard Change Its Spots?

Q: I used FTP to transfer a save file from one AS/400 to another, but I forgot to create the save file on the receiving AS/400 first. Now, I have a physical file. Can I convert this physical file back to a save file?

— Dale Monti This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A: You cannot take the physical file and create a save file from it, but you can re-FTP the file from your PC. Use the following commands to re-create your save file without losing the data in it. Assume, for example, that you inadvertently created a physical file named DATA1 on your AS/400. It should have been a save file, but you forgot to create the save file first. To transfer the data from DATA1 into a new save file in library QGPL, do the following:

1. From an AS/400 command line, create a save file named NEWSAVF in a library (in this example, I’ll use library QGPL):


2. Now, start the FTP on the AS/400 and use the following FTP commands to move the data from your physical file (that should have been a save file) into the new save file in QGPL:

• ftp system name
• user Your User ID
• pass Your Password
• binary
• quit

— Chuck Pence This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Jobs, Jobs, Everywhere Jobs!

Programmers and operators need to review the status of interactive and batch jobs daily. The commands often used for this are Work with Active Jobs (WRKACTJOB) for interactive jobs and a combination of Work with Job Queues (WRKJOBQ) and either Work

with Subsystem Jobs (WRKSBSJOB) or Work with Submitted Jobs (WRKSBMJOB) for batch jobs.

WRKACTJOB uses a great deal of resources, gives me more information and power than I usually need, and is not sequenced in a way that is useful for me. In addition, although WRKJOBQ, WRKSBSJOB, and WRKSBMJOB do give useful information, it would be more convenient just to combine the information into a single display so I could see for each subsystem which jobs are waiting to run with the jobs already activated.

Using the Work with User Jobs (WRKUSRJOB) command solves both of these problems by allowing me to display interactive jobs in a more meaningful way and, for batch jobs, combining waiting and active jobs into a single display. However, the command parameters for WRKUSRJOB can be confusing. For that reason, I have created a new command that uses WRKUSRJOB but simplifies the parameter options. I call this command Work with Users (WRKUSERS), shown in Figure 1. The command processing program (CPP) for this command is WRKUSERC (Figure 2).

WRKUSERS has just two parameters: User and Type. For User, you can specify *ALL (the default) for all users, * for the current user, or a user name. In this way, you can indicate whose jobs you want to see. Type parameter has only two options: *BATCH (the default) for batch jobs or *INTER for interactive users. When executed, the command runs WRKUSERC, which examines the value specified for Type and fills in the appropriate parameters to execute WRKUSRJOB. When *BATCH is specified, you can see all the batch jobs waiting or running for all users, the current user, or the user indicated. These jobs are grouped by subsystem, so you can see the sequence in which jobs are processed. If *INTER is keyed in, for example, you get a list of users currently logged on, sorted initially by user ID.

Once a list is displayed, look at the command keys available, and you will see options for changing the sort sequence, the information being displayed, or even the user value from what was initially requested. Be aware that, as written, I have selected the *BASIC level of information to be displayed because I like the way this option displays information. *BASIC is the most restrictive as far as user options are concerned, so you may not have the same level of job manipulation as you are accustomed to having. Consequently, you may want to try experimenting with WRKUSRJOB parameters and choose values different from those I have provided if you want a higher level of job control and are less concerned with the actual sort sequence.

I use this command many times each day to find out why one of my batch jobs hasn’t started, to see if a remote user is currently logged on, and to gather many other pieces of useful information about batch and interactive jobs. In addition, operations doesn’t complain about system response time slowing down because I no longer need to use WRKACTJOB.

Try it. I think you’ll find it as useful as I have.

— Bruce Guetzkow This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


/* To compile: */
/* */

/* */


CMD PROMPT('Work with Users')


SPCVAL((*) (*ALL)) PROMPT('User')




Figure 1: Use WRKUSERS to see instantaneously what your users are doing on the system.


/* To Create: */
/* Crtclpgm Pgm(xxx/WrkUserc) Srcfil(xxx/Qclsrc) */





/* When "Batch", display Batch Jobs for User Specified. */






/* When "Inter", display Interactive Jobs for User Specified. */







Figure 2: Here’s the WRKUSERS command processing program.

Time for a Change

Q: Is there a way to change the timeout interval for FTP? Currently, when I start an FTP session, I receive a message that says my FTP session connection will end after 5 minutes. Once I have an FTP session active, is there a command that can extend or change this timeout feature?

— Mike Essig This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A: There are two ways to change the disconnect time interval on FTP sessions. The first way is to use the Change FTP Attributes (CHGFTPA) command. Using this command, which you can also reach by keying in the Configure TCP/IP (CFGTCP) command and option 3, you would specify, on the Inactivity Time Out (INACTTIMO) par-ameter, the number of seconds an FTP session can remain inactive before it times out. The default is 300 seconds, or 5 minutes.

Your other option is to use the Client Access/400 Operations Navigator (OpsNav). To use OpsNav, open an OpsNav session and double-click on the Network icon. Double- click on the Servers icon, and you will see an icon for TCP/IP. Right-click on this and select Explore. In the right pane, you will see all the TCP/IP servers listed. Right-click on the FTP icon and select Properties. You will see a panel like the one shown in Figure 3. Type in the number of seconds you want your FTP session to remain active and click OK. That’s all there is to it!

— Jeff Importico This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

— Shannon O’Donnell Associate Technical Editor

Midrange Computing This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Figure 3: You can change the FTP timeout value from the OpsNav panel.

There’s Never a Lumberjack Around When You Need One!

Q: Does the AS/400 log changes to systems values, perhaps in a system journal? Recently, someone on our system changed the system value for the startup program (system value QSTRTUPGM). As you might imagine, this change had undesirable effects on our system. Specifically, it failed to start correctly after an IPL.

— David Gibbs Founder, Midrange-L This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A: The AS/400 does log changes to system values in the history log. To locate the correct error message showing who made certain changes, use the Display Log (DSPLOG) command and search for message ID CPF1815 (DSPLOG MSGID (CPF1815)). Both the original system value and the new value will appear in the message text, along with the date, time, and user ID of the person who changed it. To see the all the details, press F9 to display message details.

— Bob Crothers This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A: Sure, you can track this information. Use the Change System Value (CHGSYSVAL) command for system value QAUDLVL (security auditing level). Enter *SECURITY for this system value and press Enter to log a wide variety of security-related activities, including changes to system values and to system journal QAUDJRN. After that, it’s a simple matter of displaying the system audit journal, perhaps by using a query so you can subset only changes to system values.

—Kenneth E. Graap IBM Certified Specialist

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Compare Source, Excluding Comments

You can use IBM’s OS/400 Compare Physical File Member (CMPPFM) command to find differences in source line between two versions of the source code for the same program. CMPPFM is often useful when you have multiple versions of the same source and wish to identify the correct or most current version.

CMPPFM can also be useful when verifying the work of a junior programmer who is doing a modification on your behalf. You can compare the modified version of the source to the production version to audit the changes and access the risks of

TechTalk505-00.png 600x379

implementation. I found that EDP (Electronic Data Processing) auditors prefer shops to use source compare utilities to allow an MIS supervisor to catch unauthorized modifications. CMPPFM has options to exclude comment lines or comment areas for source code comparisons. These options help to focus your attention on logic changes and eliminate the clutter of lines of code that have been commented out. CMPPFM has several options to suppress comment lines to support various AS/400 programming languages.

I have set up PDM options for doing source comparisons of CL with RPG III source members but ignoring comments, but you can do the same with Work with User- Defined Options in PDM, as shown in Figures 4 and 5. Normally, you would compare a test version of a source member with a production version. Therefore, I suggest putting the production program library name in the OLDFILE parameter as a default. From PDM, you can prompt the CP or CR option and override the defaults. Remember to replace production in the examples with your production source library name. When you run this PDM option over a source member, CMPPFM produces a completion message at the bottom of the screen, indicating whether the source members are identical (that is, identical except for comment lines). CMPPFM also produces a spool file of three or more pages. (The spool file is three pages if there are no differences and more than three if there are differences, with the differences listed.)

— Richard Leitch This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Figure 4: Use this PDM option to compare CL source members.

Figure 5: Use this PDM option to compare RPG source members.

A + B = ...Say What?

Everyone knows how to use RPG to add two numbers together to get the next number in a sequence. Piece of cake, right? But what if you had to add two letters together to get the next letter in a sequence? That’s a bit tougher, but not to worry! There is a way to accomplish this.

Adding one to B to get C, for example, is achieved through the XLATE op code, which enables the (surprise!) translation of a character string on a byte-by-byte basis from one value to another. Laying out the numbering sequence in the “from” argument and offsetting it by one in the “to” argument turns one into two and A into B. Just as in addition

TechTalk506-00.png 400x216

TechTalk506-01.png 400x222

done by hand, the procedure increments from right to left, controlling any carriers that may result.

For this to work, every byte in the source string must be processed individually. Unfortunately, the XLATE op code does not yet have a %Xlate built-in function counterpart that allows translation to take place as part of an expression. To bypass this limitation and avoid the necessity of array processing, I’ve wrapped the XLATE op code in a subprocedure (see Figure 6).

All parameters are declared using the Varying keyword to make the compiler keep track of the actual length and reduce the number of bytes passed through the parameter stack. The Value keyword indicates that the actual parameter value, not its pointer, is passed to the procedure, protecting the source value from possibly unwanted modification.

If overflow occurs, the result is all zeros. Using the source debugger on the sample program shown in Figure 7, you can see the effect of various source strings.

— Carsten Flensberg


** To Create:


** CrtRpgMod Module(FNC001MR)

** CrtSrvPgm Srvpgm(FNC001S) Module(FNC001MR) Export(*ALL)


** CrtBndDir BndDir(FNC001B) Text('General Functions Directory')

** AddBndDirE BndDir(FNC001B) Obj((FNC001S *SRVPGM))



H NoMain Option( *SrcStmt )

**-- Alfa indexer: -----------------------------------------------------**

D AlfIdx Pr 64a Varying

D String 64a Varying Value

**-- Translate: --------------------------------------------------------**

D Xlate Pr 64a Varying

D String 64a Varying Value

D Xfrom 64a Varying Const

D Xto 64a Varying Const

**-- Alfa indexer: -----------------------------------------------------**

P AlfIdx B Export

D Pi 64a Varying

D String 64a Varying Value


D Len S 5u 0

D Ofs S 5u 0






C Eval Len = %Len( String )

C Eval Ofs = Len


C Do Len

C Eval %Subst( String: Ofs : 1 ) =

C Xlate( %Subst( String: Ofs: 1 ): Cur: Nxt )


C If %Subst( String: Ofs: 1 ) <> '0'

C Leave

C EndIf


C Eval Ofs = Ofs - 1

C EndDo


C Return String


P AlfIdx E

**-- Translate: --------------------------------------------------------**

P Xlate B

D Pi 64a Varying

D Xstring 64a Varying Value

D Xfrom 64a Varying Const

D Xto 64a Varying Const


C Xfrom:Xto Xlate Xstring Xstring


C Return Xstring


P Xlate E

Figure 6: This RPG IV module automatically indexes alpha characters.


** To Create:



** CrtRpgMod Module(FNC002MR) DbgView(*LIST)

** CrtPgm Pgm(FNC002I) Module(FNC002MR) ActGrp(QILE)



H BndDir( 'FNC001B' ) Option( *SrcStmt )

**-- Global variables: -------------------------------------------------**

D Field S 7a Inz

**-- Functions: --------------------------------------------------------**

D AlfIdx Pr 64a Varying

D String 64a Varying Value

**-- Main routine: -----------------------------------------------------**


C Do 100

C Eval Field = AlfIdx( Field )

C EndDo


C Return

Figure 7: This program shows you how to use the Alpha Indexer shown in Figure 6.



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  • Time to Remove the Paper from Your Desk and Become More Efficient

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericToo much paper is wasted. Attempts to locate documents in endless filing cabinets.And distributing documents is expensive and takes up far too much time.
    These are just three common reasons why it might be time for your company to implement a paperless document management system.
    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally


  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400


    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days


  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.


  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using as a pre-built development environment



  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.


  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.



  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption



  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.



  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access




  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.


  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.



  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.



  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    SB Profound WC GenericHave you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
    Watch Now.

  • The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

    SB Profound WC Generic The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
    Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
    Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
    Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
    This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
    Watch Now.

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.