Putting Java Inside Your Database

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If your business is like most, your vital business data is stored in a relational database. Since that information is in a database, you can use SQL to analyze and manipulate it. And because your database is on a server system, you can use your workstation to access the data, using the client/server paradigm. At some point, however, you may discover that SQL can’t do everything. You then want to create programs to analyze your data, but you don’t want to tie those programs to any particular architecture. Most importantly, you want to be able to get at the information from your workstation.

One approach is to write a Java program that runs on your workstation and uses Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) or ODBC to access the data in your database. However, if that program accesses a large amount of data, the transfer of data from server to client may slow the program’s performance. This forces you to consider another option: putting your program on the server. But if it is a stand-alone program, you have to figure out how to get the results back to the workstation. Fortunately, most databases have a solution to this problem. That solution is stored procedures, which are programs that you can call using the SQL CALL statement. Using a stored procedure puts your code inside the database system.

When writing a stored procedure, a variety of languages can be used. However, if you are concerned with portability, you will probably end up using one of two languages: SQL or Java. If the program you are creating is fairly simple, you can write the function using SQL and then define an SQL stored procedure. However, there are times when the function is more complex, and writing it in SQL is either impossible or requires an SQL genius. In this case, you probably want to write in a procedural language. And, if you want something that is portable, you want to use Java.

Support for Java stored procedures was added to DB2 UDB for AS/400 in V4R5. This article presents examples of how stored procedures can be created, deployed, and used on the AS/400. Since Java is used as the implementation language, these stored procedures can also be used on other platforms.

Java Stored Procedures for DB2

When running a Java stored procedure, the database engine must create a Java Virtual Machine, or JVM, to run the Java program. On the AS/400, the database engine creates a

JVM that uses the latest version of Java installed on the system. Before the database can run a Java program, it must first be able to find the program. With the AS/400, all user- defined Java programs must be stored in the AS/400 Integrated File System (AS/400 IFS), in the /QIBM/UserData/OS400/SQLLib/Function directory.

Interfacing Between Java and the Database

When a stored procedure is called, the database must convert the type of the parameters from a database type to a type understood by the language being used. When the language used is Java, the database must determine which method should be called for the stored procedure. When writing stored procedures for Java on DB2 UDB, the parameter style determines how parameters are passed and how a Java method is structured. Two parameters styles are provided by DB2: DB2General and Java.

The DB2General parameter style was introduced with DB2 UDB, so it is available only on DB2 platforms. In this parameter style, a Java stored procedure is an instance method of a Java class. This class must extend the app.StoredProc class supplied by DB2. In this parameter style, parameters are passed (and converted to) Java types. These types are either a Java class or a Java primitive type. Figure 1 shows the mappings for some common SQL types. (The complete set of mappings can be found in the DB2 UDB for AS/400 SQL Reference manual.) The IN, INOUT, and OUT parameters are all passed to the Java method in the same manner. However, the Java method must explicitly set the output parameters, using Set methods provided by the StoredProc class.

If you are used to programming in Java or C++, using a Set method to set the return value may seem awkward. A more natural approach is provided by the Java parameter style. The Java parameter style is the parameter style specified by the SQLj: SQL Routines standard (latest draft is available at sqlj/Pt1—99-
284.pdf). In this parameter style, a Java stored procedure is a “static” method. Like the DB2General parameter style, database types are converted to Java types. Unlike the DB2General parameter style, INOUT and OUT parameters are passed as one-element Java arrays. Setting the first element of the array sets an output parameter. Because the SQLj standard supports this parameter style, it is available on several database systems.

A Stored Procedure Example

Although SQL has some functions that provide statistical information, many functions are missing. This missing functionality may be found by using Java stored procedures. As an example, I will implement a stored procedure that calculates the geometric mean of the column of a table. My stored procedure example is designed to be flexible enough to work with a variety of numeric types as well as with data from a variety of tables. (Note that, although the example is mathematical, stored procedures are commonly used to optimize business database queries.) Any frequently used complex query should be optimized to a stored procedure. Using Java stored procedures to implement your complex business logic will permit you to run that logic on a variety of database platforms.

A geometric mean for n values is calculated by multiplying the values together and then taking the nth root of the product. In its simplest form, this algorithm is impractical because multiplying many values together soon produces a number that is so large that it cannot be represented by a 64-bit double. However, it is possible to iteratively calculate the mean.

Figure 2 (page 89) presents a Java method for calculating the geometric mean of a column of numbers. This method, called calculate, is a static method of the class. It is flexible in that it uses an SQL query to select the column from which the values are to be calculated. The method first executes the SQL query using a statement created from a JDBC connection. It then loops through each value

returned by the query and calculates the current geometric mean, using the previous geometric mean as input.

I then want to use this method within a stored procedure. Figure 3 (page 89) shows an example of a method used as a Java stored procedure that uses the DB2General parameter style. Because the DB2General parameter style is used, the GMeanDB2 class extends the class. The method, gmean, has two parameters. The first parameter, Answer, is an output parameter and is used to return (Java) double. The second parameter, query, is a String, which contains the SQL statement that selects the column of values. This procedure first uses the getConnection method of the StoredProc class to get the JDBC connection to the current database. It then passes this connection, as well as the query, to the GeometricMean.calculate method. This method returns a double, which is used by the Set method to return the value to the database.

Figure 4 (page 89) contains an example of a method to be used as Java stored procedure, which uses the Java parameter style. In this example, the GMeanJava class is merely a container. It does not extend another class. The method, gmean, is a static method. The output parameter is passed as a single-element array of double. As in the DB2General parameter style, the input parameter is passed as a String. This procedure obtains a connection to the database by using the URL jdbc.default.connection, as specified by the SQLj standard. It passes the connection and the query to GeometricMean.calculate, which returns the value. The return value is then returned to the database by setting it as the value of the first element in the array.

Compiling and Placing Code for Java Stored Procedures

Once the stored procedures are written, they need to be compiled to Java byte code. Then they need to placed on the system on which they will be run, in a location where the database can access them.

Since a class containing a Java stored procedure that uses the DB2General parameter style extends the StoredProc class, the StoredProc class must be available when the stored procedure class is compiled. On the AS/400, the StoredProc class resides in the db2routines_classes.jar file, which is found in the /QIBM/ProdData /Java400/ext directory. To compile my Java program, I first copied the db2routines_classes.jar file to my Microsoft Windows NT workstation. I then added the JAR file to my CLASSPATH and compiled using the following commands: Compiling the class for the Java parameter style, I just use the Java compiler: Then these files must be placed on the AS/400. Since they are part of the packages, the class files must be copied to the /QIBM/UserData/OS400/SQLLib/Function/ com/xxx directory. In my case, I used FTP (in binary mode) to move the files to the AS/400.

Registering the Stored Procedure with the Database

Before you are able to use a Java method as a stored procedure, you must create a stored procedure. The Create Procedure SQL statement creates a stored procedure and allows you to associate that stored procedure with an external program. When creating a Java stored procedure, there are three phrases that must be used. First, a Language Java phrase must be used to indicate Java. Then a parameter style phrase must be used. This phrase is either parameter style Java or parameter style DB2General. Finally, the external name phrase is

set CLASSPATH=db2routines_classes.jar;%CLASSPATH%


used to specify the Java method to be called. The external name phrase includes the full name of the class, followed by the method name. Figure 5 (page 89) shows the SQL statements used to create stored procedures that use both parameter style Java and parameter style DB2General.

Running the Stored Procedure

Now that the stored procedure is created, how do you run it? Given that the stored procedure calculates a mean, it needs to have some data to operate on. Using the SQL statements in Figure 6 (page 89), I create the table numbers and populate the table with data. You may notice that integer values are stored in the table. Because the stored procedure uses JDBC to read the data, the JDBC call getDouble(), within the stored procedure, automatically converts the SQL INTEGER into a Java double.

One way to run the stored procedure is to create a client program that calls the stored procedure and obtains the return value. A JDBC client program to call the stored procedure is shown in Figure 7. This program uses the AS/400 Toolbox for Java JDBC driver to connect to the AS/400. You execute Client by qualifying the IP address (or host name), profile, password, and the name of the file, as follows: The output of the program is shown below.

For more on how to debug your Java stored procedures, read the Web sidebar to this article, “Debugging Tips for Java Stored Procedures.”

The use of Java stored procedures permits Java code to run inside your database. This is especially useful if you want to write business logic that is portable to a wide range of database systems. This article has only briefly covered Java stored procedures and their use on the AS/400. More information about Java stored procedures is available in the AS/400 DB2 manuals and in the Redbook DB2 UDB for AS/400 Advanced Database Functions.


• DB2 UDB for AS/400 Advanced Database Functions, Redbook (SG24-4249-02)

• DB2 UDB for AS/400 SQL Programming Concepts:

• DB2 UDB for AS/400 SQL Reference: as400/v4r5/ic2924/info/db2/rbafzmst02.htm

• Web site:

java Client hostName profile password numbers

The answer using gmeandb is 3.936283427035352
The answer using gmeanjava is 3.936283427035352

Debugging Tips for Java Stored Procedures

One of the difficulties associated with using Java stored procedures is the problem of debugging a stored procedure when something goes wrong. There are two different options I use when debugging a stored procedure: manual tracing and the AS/400 debugger.

One way to debug a Java stored procedure is to manually add tracing code to your stored procedure. Within a stored procedure, you can open a file and then write trace information to that file using typical Java file output methods. One thing to remember is that, within a Java stored procedure, you cannot write to System.out or Syster.err. Doing so may cause the job to fail with an MCH3402 exception.

Another option for debugging a stored procedure is to use the AS/400 debugger. To do this, you first need to compile your code in debuggable mode using the -g option. Second, you need to move your Java source file, as well as your Java class file, to the /QIBM/UserData/OS400/SQLLib/Function directory on the AS/400. Third, you need to figure out what job on the AS/400 is running the stored procedure. If you are using the toolbox JDBC driver or Operations Navigator, the job will be a QZDASOINIT job in the QSERVER subsystem. A tedious way to do this is to look at all the QZDASOINIT jobs on the system and find the job with the user profile used to connect to the system.

A simpler way to determine the job is to write a small CL program that is called each time someone connects to a QZDASOINIT job. Figure A shows a small CL program that sends a message to my message queue (EBERHARD) whenever I connect to the AS/400. The message indicates which QZDASOINIT job is being used. This program is registered as an exit program using the following command:


The exit program can later be removed using the following command:


Once the job is found, I start a service job on the AS/400 using the Start Server Job (STRSRVJOB) command. After that, I can start the debugger using the Start Debugger (STRDBG) command. Before I can add a Java program to the debugger, the JVM must be started. I usually do this by letting my Java stored procedure run once. Once it has run, I am able to add my Java program to the debugger using the Display Module Source (DSPMODSRC) command. From there, I can debug the program like any other AS/400 Java program.

—John Eberhard


dcl &Okay *char 1

dcl &Request *char 34

dcl &User *char 10

dcl &JOB *CHAR 10



chgvar &User %sst(&Request 1 10)

chgvar &Okay ‘1’








Figure A: This CL program notifies a user that a connection has been accepted.

SQL Data Type Java Data Type


Figure 1: SQL datatypes have a corresponding Java class or primitive type.


import java.sql.*;

public class GeometricMean {

public static double calculate(Connection con, String query)

throws java.sql.SQLException {

double answer= 1.0;

double count = 0.0;

Statement stmt = con.createStatement();

ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery (query);

while ( {
double value = rs.getDouble(1);
if (value != 0.0) {

count += 1.0;


Math.pow(value,1.0/count); }




return answer;



Figure 2: This Java program calculates the geometric mean of a table’s column.

import java.sql.*;
// Example of parameter style db2general stored procedure
public class GMeanDB2 extends StoredProc {

public void gmean(double answer, String query) throws Exception {

Connection con = getConnection();

set(1,GeometricMean.calculate(con, query));


public void gmean2(String resultTable, String query) throws Exception {

Connection con = getConnection();

double answer = GeometricMean.calculate(con, query);

Statement stmt = con.createStatement ();

stmt.executeUpdate("create table "+resultTable+"(mean double)");

stmt.executeUpdate("insert into "+resultTable+" values("+answer+")");




Figure 3: A Java stored procedure can use the DB2General parameter style.

import java.sql.*;
// Example of parameter style java stored procedure
public class GMeanJava { public static void gmean(double[] answer, String query) throws Exception {

Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(“jdbc:default:connection”);

answer[0]=GeometricMean.calculate(con, query);


public static void gmean2(String resultTable, String query) throws Exception {

Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(“jdbc:default:connection”);

double answer = GeometricMean.calculate(con, query);

Statement stmt = con.createStatement ();

stmt.executeUpdate(“create table “+resultTable+”(mean double)”);

stmt.executeUpdate(“insert into “+resultTable+” values(“+answer+”)”);




Figure 4: A Java stored procedure can use Java parameter style.

create procedure gmeanjava(inout double, in VARCHAR(30))

language java parameter style java

external name '';

create procedure gmeanjava2(in VARCHAR(30), in VARCHAR(30))

language java parameter style java

external name '';

create procedure gmeandb(inout double, in VARCHAR(30))

language java parameter style db2general

external name '';

create procedure gmeandb2(in VARCHAR(30), in VARCHAR(30))

language java parameter style db2general

external name '';

Figure 5: The SQL Create Procedure statements can qualify a Java class.

create table numbers (number integer)
insert into numbers values(1)
insert into numbers values(3)
insert into numbers values(5)
insert into numbers values(7)
insert into numbers values(9)

Figure 6: SQL insert statements can be used to populate a table.

import java.sql.*;

public class Client {

public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception {

String url = “jdbc:as400://”+args[0];
Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection (url, args[1], args[2]);
CallableStatement cstmt;

cstmt = con.prepareCall(“call gmeandb(?, ?)”);

cstmt.setDouble(1, 0.0);

cstmt.setString(2, args[3]);



System.out.println(“The answer using gmeandb is “+cstmt.getDouble(1));

cstmt = con.prepareCall(“call gmeanjava(?, ?)”);

cstmt.setDouble(1, 0.0);

cstmt.setString(2, args[3]);



System.out.println(“The answer using gmeanjava is “+cstmt.getDouble(1));



Figure 7: JDBC clients can easily invoke a stored procedure.







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    • Modernizing with RPG OA requires significant changes to the source code
    • The RPG language is outdated and impractical for modernizing applications
    • Modernizing with RPG OA is the equivalent to "screen scraping"


  • Time to Remove the Paper from Your Desk and Become More Efficient

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericToo much paper is wasted. Attempts to locate documents in endless filing cabinets.And distributing documents is expensive and takes up far too much time.
    These are just three common reasons why it might be time for your company to implement a paperless document management system.
    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally


  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400


    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days


  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.


  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using as a pre-built development environment



  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.


  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.



  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption



  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.



  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access




  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.


  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.



  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.



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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.