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# Arrays for Intelligent People Part 1

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I like arrays. I always have. I don’t use them as often as I once did because RPG III and RPG IV have better ways of doing some of the things I used to do with arrays (like concatenation and substringing) and because DDS doesn’t support them. Even so, arrays are handy and are far from obsolete.

RPG of any flavor is a good language for working with one-dimensional arrays. One line of RPG is sometimes enough to accomplish a task that would require a loop in other languages.

In this article, I explain how to define arrays and discuss what operations you can do with arrays in RPG. I’ll cover two methods—the “new” method, used in RPG IV, and the “old” method, used in RPG II and RPG III. I’ll use RPG IV for my examples, however, since RPG IV has several features that RPG III doesn’t have (and never will have).

In a future article, I’ll discuss some of the ways you can put arrays to work, no matter what language you use.

### Arrays Can Hold More than One Value

By default, a variable can hold only one value at a time. Such a variable is called a scalar variable. Storing a new value in a scalar variable wipes out the previous value.

An array variable can hold a list of values of the same data type and size. The values are distinguished by ordinal position within the list. That is, I can talk about the first value, or the fourth value, or the last value in the list. Each value in the list is called an element of the array and behaves like a scalar variable. The numeric value that indicates the element to be referenced is called an index or a subscript.

Many variables besides arrays can hold more than one value; these variables include tables, records, and data structures.

Tables differ from arrays in several ways: tables are not subscripted, table names always begin with the letters TAB, and an entire table may not be referenced in one

operation. (A table name references only the element last retrieved with a lookup operation.)

If I remember correctly, tables were part of RPG first, and arrays were added later. Anything you can do with a table, you can do with an array, so there’s no need to use tables anymore.

Records and data structures differ from arrays in that they may contain values of different types, and the values are distinguished by name, not by ordinal position.

### Defining Arrays

To define an array in RPG IV, add the DIM (dimension) keyword to a D (definition) specification. The only argument DIM requires is the number of elements in the array.

In RPG III and RPG II, you must use an E (extension) specification to define an array.

Whichever RPG you use, you must give the compiler certain information about each array: the name of the array, the number of elements in the array, and the size of each element. Figure 1 shows you the new and old ways to define an array called SLS.

You may also need to specify other information, such as the number of elements to be loaded from each record of a file or a compile-time dataset and the sequence in which the elements are to be stored. Figure 2 shows you what is allowed and what is required for the three types of arrays and how to specify this information in both versions of RPG. You may find this table helpful as you read through the rest of this article. (The meaning of “run-time,”“prerun-time,” and “compile-time” used in Figure 2 will become clear in a moment.)

Indexes are specified differently in RPG IV than they are in RPG II or RPG III. In the “old” way to index an array, you code the array name, followed by a comma, followed by the index (which must be a numeric variable or constant).

In RPG IV, you place the index in parentheses after the array name. You may leave blanks between the array name and index if you like. Not surprisingly, RPG IV’s support for indexes is better. In RPG IV, the index may be a valid numeric expression that yields a positive integer value not greater than the number of elements in the array. For example, (X + 1) is a valid index (assuming there are at least X + 1 elements in the array, of course.)

An array element can get a value in three ways: in calculations, at compilation time, and from a file at program initialization time. If you assign an initial value to an array, you aren’t stuck with it. You can assign one value to an array element at compilation time or prerun-time and then change the value of that element in calculations. Nevertheless, arrays are classified by these three means of initialization, so I will discuss each of them in more detail.

### Run-time Arrays

In run-time arrays, the values are assigned to array elements in the calculations of the program. The initial values are the same as for scalars, i.e., zeros for numeric arrays, blanks for character arrays, etc. In RPG IV, you can use the INZ keyword to assign an initial value for all elements of an array. The initial value may be anything you like, as long as it’s a valid value of the array’s data type. RPG III doesn’t have this ability.

The SLS array defined in Figure 1 is a run-time array. Run-time arrays are the only array type that can be defined in RPG IV subprocedures. Of course, a subprocedure can access compile-time or prerun-time arrays defined in the module of which it is a part.

### Compile-time Arrays

The initial values of a compile-time array are included in source code after all RPG specifications. Precede each compile-time array dataset with a line beginning with two asterisks and a blank. The compiler will ignore the rest of the line. On the following line enter the compile-time data.

In RPG II and RPG III, you must put the compile-time data in the same order as the arrays they reference are listed in the E specs. You can use this method in RPG IV programs too, but I recommend a different way: follow the two asterisks with the letters CTDATA, a blank, and the name of the array to be loaded.

As you can see in Figure 2, you must tell the compiler the number of elements to be found in each dataset record.

The StateAbbr array defined in Figure 3 is a compile-time array because of the presence of the CTDATA keyword. It has five elements in all. Each record of the dataset has values for five elements, so one record of data is enough.

### Prerun-time Arrays

You can probably see one disadvantage to compile-time arrays: If you change the initial value of an element, you have to modify the source code and recompile the program.

Prerun-time arrays let you keep the array values in a separate file. At program initialization, the file is opened and the array is loaded. The file must be defined in the F specs with a T in the File Designation entry.

In Figure 4, StateAbbr is a prerun-time array. At program initialization, the system will load StateAbbr from one record of the STATES file.

You no longer have to recompile the program to change an element’s initial value, but you still to maintain the file containing the data.

### Alternating Arrays

You can interleave compile-time or prerun-time array values if you wish. That is, the system will read the first element of the primary array, the first element of the alternate array, the second element of the primary array, and so on, from the array dataset.

Figure 5 contains RPG IV code to define and initialize alternating compile-time arrays of the states whose names have four occurrences of one vowel, and no other vowels. Notice that the first two characters of the compile-time data, AL, are the value for element one of StateAbbr. The next twelve characters, “Alabama”, are the value for element one of StateName.

The arrays will not be stored in alternating format in memory. All elements of any array will be stored adjacent to one another.

In the old method, the primary and alternate arrays are defined on the same E spec. Positions 27 through 45 are used to define the primary array. Positions 46 through 57 of the E spec are used to define the alternate array.

### Noncontiguous Arrays

There is a way to store data of two or more arrays in alternating format in memory. That is, element 1 of the first array is followed by element 1 of the second array, which is followed by element 2 of the first array, and so on. To store in this alternating format, use noncontiguous arrays. Refer to Figure 6 as I explain how to do that.

First, define a base array as a subfield within a data structure. In this case, the base array is SalesData. Then define other subfields that overlay the base array. Here, those subfields are Region, NbrOfSales, and Revenue.

The OVERLAY keyword has two parameters—the name of the subfield to be overlaid, and the offsetting position. The second parameter defaults to 1.

Last, notice that the length of the base array element must be at least as long as the combined lengths of the noncontiguous array elements in bytes. Region has four-byte elements. Each element of NbrOfSales occupies three bytes, and Revenue has four-byte elements. Therefore, SalesData must have elements of eleven bytes or more.

### Basic Array Operations

Let’s consider the operations specifically designed for arrays.

### Table Lookup

One of the most common ways to use an array is to search a table. (In this context, table doesn’t mean the RPG feature similar to arrays, but a generic term for related columnar information.) This is the principle you use when you look up someone’s phone number in a telephone book. You search a name column until you find the name of the person you want to contact. When you find a match, you look in the column to the right to get that person’s phone number.

Figure 7 illustrates this process. Here you search for a state name, given a state abbreviation in field ABBR. The LOOKUP operation looks for an exact match, because the resulting indicator is in the “equal” position. It begins searching at element 1, because the index, x, is set to 1 before the lookup begins.

This is the most common type of table lookup, but you can also search for the first element that is greater than, or the first element less than, the argument in Factor 1. You can also start the search with some element other than the first, by setting the index to a value other than 1 before the lookup begins.

Of course, there are other ways to search a table. You can store a table in a database file instead. The advantage of using an array is speed. The disadvantage of using an array is that you may have to recompile a program when you change the table.

As a rule, use a file to store a table. But if the table is heavily accessed and relatively static, an array instead will deliver better performance.

You can use the SORTA op code to reorder the elements of an array. They will be sorted in either ascending or descending sequence, which you can specify in the defining E spec or by using the ASCEND or DESCEND keywords in the D spec.

Because blanks sort before all printable characters, you might want to initialize all elements of an array to *HIVAL when the program starts running. This way, SORTA places all unused array documents at the end of the array.

If you use SORTA with noncontiguous arrays, the base array is sorted in the sequence of the noncontiguous array. Look again at Figure 6. A calculation that says “SORTA NbrOfSales” will sort the entire SalesData array in ascending sequence by NbrOfSales.

### Crossfoot

The Crossfoot (XFOOT) opcode adds all the elements of a numeric array together and stores the sum in the result field. This comes in handy when you’re using an array to sum up totals.

For example, assume a program reads records containing (among other things) the total amount of a customer invoice and the territory in which that sale was made. Valid territory codes are 1 through 7, so you might use an eight-element array to accumulate sales. The first seven elements will be for valid territory numbers, and the last element will be for invalid territory numbers, just in case a data entry error slips through or a territory number is not entered for an invoice.

### Sorting

Figure 8 illustrates a portion of the code that would process that sales data. After all data has been processed, the XFOOT operation sums the territorial sales figures into the TotalSales variable.

### Array-to-Array and Scalar-to-Array Operations

I really like RPG’s support for arrays, especially the way certain opcodes commonly used with scalar variables work when used with arrays.

If I apply a scalar value to an unscripted array name, all elements are affected. In Figure 9, for example, the MOVE changes the last two characters of each element to “**” and the EVAL changes all elements to “UNDEFINED”.

If I apply one array to another, the two arrays are matched by element. The matching begins with the first element and proceeds through the number of elements in the array with fewer elements. In Figure 10, the MOVE changes four elements of ARR03. The EVAL changes the first four elements of ARR04 and leaves the last four elements unchanged.

Figure 11 contains a list of some of the op codes that can be used with scalar or array variables.

The MOVEA (Move Array) op code is interesting. It can copy from a scalar to an array, from an array to a scalar, or from one array to another. It copies data character by character, from left to right, ignoring element sizes. Figure 12 illustrates how this op code works. I’ve included the contents of ARRAY05 and ARRAY06 before the MOVEA operation in comments. Then look at the comment following MOVEA.

But MOVEA has a couple of restrictions. First, in RPG III and RPG IV, you can’t use MOVEA with numeric fields. RPG II allows it, however.

Second, since the elements are not stored together in memory, the MOVEA cannot be used with a noncontiguous array (one defined with the OVERLAY keyword) in RPG
IV.

### It Slices, It Dices...

Arrays are versatile. I’ve studied and used other types of data structures, including linked lists, sets, and graphs, and I find arrays the most useful of them all.

There’s more I could say about arrays, and I would have liked to have given more examples, but I’m out of room. I’ll talk more about arrays in a future issue. Now that I’ve showed how to define and manipulate arrays, I’ll concentrate on ways to put them to work.

Reference ILE RPG/400 Reference Version 3 (SC09-2077-01, CD-ROM QBJAQE01)

`New way:....+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6`

` D SLS S 9 2 DIM(4)Old way:....+....1....+....2....+....3....+....4....+....5....+....6`

` E SLS 4 9 2`

Figure 1: Defining an array in the various flavors of RPG

Function RPG II/III columns RPG IV columns Run-time Prerun-time Compile-time or keywords
Array name 27-32 7-21 Required Required Required Number of elements 36-39 DIM Required Required Required

Element length 40-42 33-39 Required Required Required Decimal positions 44 41-42 Allowed Allowed Allowed Data format 43 EXTFMT Allowed Allowed From file 11-18 FROMFILE Required
To file 19-26 TOFILE Allowed Allowed Allowed Elements per record 33-35 PERRCD Required Required Sequence 45 ASCEND or DESCEND Allowed Allowed Allowed Alternating array 46-51 ALT Allowed Allowed Allowed Compile-time Not supported CTDATA Allowed dataset name
Initial value Not supported INZ Allowed

Figure 2: Array specification cross reference

`DStateAbbr S 2 dim(5) perrcd(5) ctdata** ctdata StateAbbrALGALAMSTN`

Figure 3: A compile-time array

`FStates if f 80 diskDStateAbbr S 2 dim(5) perrcd(5) fromfile(States)`

Figure 4: A prerun-time array

` DStateAbbr S 2 dim(3) perrcd(2) ctdata`

` DStateName S 12 dim(%elem(StateAbbr))`

` D alt(StateAbbr)** ctdata StateAbbrALAlabama MSMississippiTNTennessee`

Figure 5: Defining alternating arrays

`D DS`

` D SalesData 11 dim(5)`

`D Region 4 overlay(SalesData)D NbrOfSales 5p 0 overlay(SalesData: 5)D Revenue 7p 2 overlay( SalesData: 8)`

Figure 6: Defining noncontiguous arrays

Ted Holt is IT manager of Manufacturing Systems Development for Day-Brite Capri Omega, a manufacturer of lighting fixtures in Tupelo, Mississippi. He has worked in the information processing industry since 1981 and is the author or co-author of seven books.

MC Press books written by Ted Holt available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

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During this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

• What is stored inside my IFS directories?
• How do I monitor the IFS?
• How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
• How do I secure the IFS?

Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

• #### Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

• Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
• Establishing object-level security
• Overseeing user actions and data access

Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

• #### 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

In today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

• #### How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

A growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

• Why disk encryption isn’t enough
• What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
• Important considerations before implementing encryption

• #### Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

Malicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

• Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
• Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
• PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

• #### Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

Cyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

• Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
• Establishing object-level security
• Overseeing user actions and data access

• #### 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

Now that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

• #### How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

• Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
• Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

• #### HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

In this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

• Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
• Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
• Gain back time in your work week

Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

• #### Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
Watch Now.

• #### The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
Watch Now.

• #### Comply in 5! Well, actually UNDER 5 minutes!!

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• #### Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
- Simplified backup procedures
- Easy data encryption
- Save media management
- Guided restoration
- Seamless product integration
Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

• #### Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
- Automated message management
- Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
- System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
- Seamless product integration
Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

• #### Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

- Automated report distribution
- View online without delay
- Browser interface to make notes
- Custom retention capabilities
- Seamless product integration
Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

• #### Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
- Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
- Event-driven dependency processing
- Centralized monitoring and reporting
- Audit log and ready-to-use reports
- Seamless product integration
Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

• #### ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.