Simon's Solutions: Monitor for End Job Operations, Part II

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Learn critical cleanup techniques that target end-of-job due to end job commands.


This article continues the discussion we started in Part I. Let's start by looking at invocation exit programs and procedures.

If an MI process phase is terminated and the process was not in termination phase, then the invocations are terminated. Invocation exit programs/procedures set for the terminated invocations are allowed to run. Invocation entries (aka call stack entries) are terminated in the order of from the bottom to the top of the invocation stack (aka call stack). Invocation exits are a cleanup mechanism targeting the abnormal end-of-invocationfor example, end-of-invocation due to unhandled exceptions or thread termination. For this reason, invocation exits can monitor for end job commands issued to a job and protect resources allocated in each individual invocation.

An OPM program can register an invocation exit program for itself via the Set Invocation Exit (SETIEXIT) MI instruction. An ILE HLL procedure can register one or more invocation exit procedures for itself via the Register Call Stack Entry Termination User Exit Procedure (CEERTX) API. Simon Coulter mentioned these invocation exits techniques that target end-of-job due to end job operations in a post called Re: Regarding *PSSR in the midrange-l mailing list back in 1999:

The *PSSR is not called when the job is terminated…. using SHTDN will work if the program is not waiting for input.

What is required here is an invocation exit program. Use the CEERTX (Register Call Stack Entry Termination User Exit Procedure) API. This should be the first thing the program does, then if it is terminated by anything other than a return-to-caller the named program is executed -- usually to clean-up or restore some state.

You can also use the SETIEXIT MI instruction.

The exit program will get control when the invocation is terminated due to normal exception handling or when the process (job) is terminated.

The CEEUTX API or the CLRIEXIT MI instruction can be used to remove the exit program.

For the same reason explained by Simon in his 2001 post, as an HLL-specific exception handling construct, *PSSR routine will not be invoked when an invocation is terminated due to an end job command.

Using Invocation Exit Programs in OPM Programs via the SETIEXIT and CLRIEXIT MI Instructions

For decades, the SETIEXIT instruction has been used in OPM RPG and OPM CL programs to register invocation exits. Issue a CRTRPGPGM or CRTCLPGM command with GENOPT(*LIST) and see the MI instructions in the result compiler listing. You will find the invocation exit programs used by OPM RPG and OPM CL are QSYS/QRGXINVX and QSYS/QCLCLNUP, respectively.

The Set Invocation Exit (SETIEXIT) and Clear Invocation Exit (CLRIEXIT) MI instructions register and unregister, respectively, the invocation exit program for the OPM program in which they are issued. The SETIEXIT instruction accepts an initialized or resolved system pointer to the invocation exit program as its first operand, and an argument list to be passed to the invocation exit program as its second operand. The system pointer to the invocation exit program must be in either the static or automatic storage of the program invoking this instruction. If the argument list operand is null, no arguments are passed to the invocation exit program. If an invocation exit program currently exists for the requesting invocation, it is replaced. No operand verification takes place when this instruction is executed. Nor are copies made of the operands, so changes made to the operand values after execution of this instruction will be used during later operand verification when the invocation exit program is invoked. At that time, execute authorization verification to the invocation exit program and any contexts referenced for materialization take place. Also, materialization lock enforcement occurs to contexts referenced for materialization. The CLRIEXIT instruction removes the invocation exit program for the requesting invocation. An implicit clear of the invocation exit occurs when the invocation exit program is given control or the program that set the invocation exit completes execution.

The following is an MI program, eoj09.emi, that registers itself as its invocation exit program via the SETIEXIT instruction. EOJ09 accept a CHAR(1) flag parameter passed by reference and an optional CHAR(20) arg parameter passed as scalar. When the flag parameter is set to 'E', EOJ09 works as an invocation exit program and does necessary cleanup work.

dcl spcptr @flag parm           ;

dcl dd arg char(20)   parm       ;


* Parameter list of EOJ09's external entry   point.

* -   CHAR(1) @var flag passed by reference. Set @var flag to 'E' if

*     EOJ09 is expected to execute as an invocation exit program.

* -   Optional CHAR(20) scalar.


dcl ol plist (



) parm ext min(1)               ;

entry i-main(plist)   ext         ;

dcl dd flag char(1)   bas(@flag) ;

       /* Check flag parm. Branch to label   i-inv-exit

           if flag equal to 'E'. */

       cmpbla(b) flag, "E"

         / eq(i-inv-exit)     ;

brk "START"                     ;

       /* Retrieve a SYSPTR of mine via   MATINVE, option hex 01 */

dcl dd inve-tmpl char(16)   auto bdry(16)     ;

       dcl sysptr me def(inve-tmpl) pos(1) ;

       matinve inve-tmpl, *, x'01' ;

brk "1"                             ;

       /* Set myself as my INV-EXIT */

       setiexit me, argl-exit ;

brk "2"                         ;

       /* Do my works */

       cpybrep msg, ' '       ;

       cpybla msg, "Doing my works   ..." ;

       %sendmsg(msg, 32)       ;

dcl dd wt auto   char(16)         ;

       dcl dd * char(8) def(wt) pos(1) init(


       ) ; /* 1 hour */

       waittime wt             ; /* Sleep ... */


       rtx *                   ;

/* Run as INV-EXIT */


brk   "INVEXIT"                   ;

       cpybrep msg, ' '       ;

       cpybla msg, "INV-EXIT:" ;

       cpybla msg(11:20), arg ;

       %sendmsg(msg, 32)       ;

       cpybrep msg, "cleanup " ;

       %sendmsg(msg, 32)       ;

       b see-you               ;

dcl dd exit-flag char(1)   init("E") ;

dcl spcptr @exit-flag auto   init(exit-flag) ;

dcl dd exit-arg char(20)   stat init (

       "Oops, time to leave!"

)                               ;

/* Argument list to   INV-EXIT */

dcl ol argl-exit (



) arg                           ;

dcl dd msg char(32)   auto       ;

pend                           ;

Submit a batch job that calls EOJ09 like so:


           CMD(CALL EOJ09 A)

           LOG(4 0 *MSG) /* Log message text   */

Then end it with an ENDJOB A *IMMED command. The printed job log of job ABC might look like the following:

Job name . . . . . . . . . . :   A               User . . . . . . :   LJL         Number . . . . . . . . . . . :   531606

   Job description . . . . . . :   LJL             Library . . . . . :   LSBIN

MSGID       TYPE                   SEV DATE       TIME             FROM PGM     LIBRARY     INST       TO PGM     LIBRARY     INST

CPF1124     Information             00   12/09/26   14:18:12.843632 QWTPIIPP     QSYS       0671     *EXT                    *N

                                     Message   . . . . :   Job 531606/LJL/A started on   12/09/26 at 14:18:12 in

                                         subsystem QBATCH in QSYS. Job entered system on 12/09/26   at 14:18:12.

CPI1125     Information             00   12/09/26   14:18:12.844144 QWTPCRJA     QSYS       010F     *EXT                   *N

                                     Message   . . . . :   Job 531606/LJL/A submitted.

*NONE       Request                       12/09/26 14:18:12.844304 QWTSCSBJ                 *N       QCMD       QSYS       0194

                                     Message   . . . . : -CALL PGM(EOJ09) PARM(A)

*NONE       Information                   12/09/26 14:18:12.844488 EOJ09         LSBIN       0019    QCMD       QSYS       01C7

                                     Message   . . . . :   Doing my work ...

CPC1125     Completion             50   12/09/26   14:18:18.576376 QWTCCCNJ     QSYS       0794     *EXT                   *N

                                    Message . . . . :   Job 531606/LJL/A was ended by user LJL.

*NONE       Information                   12/09/26 14:18:18.576512 EOJ09         LSBIN       0019     EOJ09       LSBIN       0009

                                     Message   . . . . :   INV-EXIT: Oops, time to   leave!

*NONE       Information                   12/09/26 14:18:18.576528 EOJ09         LSBIN       0019     EOJ09       LSBIN       0009

                                     Message   . . . . :   cleanup cleanup cleanup   cleanup

CPF1164     Completion             00   12/09/26   14:18:18.576976 QWTMCEOJ     QSYS       00D8     *EXT                   *N

                                     Message   . . . . :   Job 531606/LJL/A ended on 12/09/26   at 14:18:18; 1 seconds

                                     used;   end code 50 .

Using Invocation Exit Procedures in ILE Programs via the CEERTX and CEEUTX CEE APIs

The Register Call Stack Entry Termination User Exit Procedure (CEERTX) and the Unregister Call Stack Entry Termination User Exit Procedure (CEEUTX) APIs register and unregister, respectively, an invocation exit procedure for the invocation entry in which they are invoked. Note that the CEERTX and CEEUTX APIs are implemented as system built-ins instead of ILE procedures (see <leenv.h>, aka source member QSYSINC/H.LEENV, in which these two CEE APIs are declared). Multiple invocation exit procedures can be registered via CEERTX for each invocation entry (aka call stack entry). When an invocation ends abnormally, invocation exit procedures registered for the invocation run in first in/first out (FIFO) order.

The CEERTX API accepts procedure pointer @exit_proc as its first (and only necessary) parameter, which specifies the invocation exit procedure. The second parameter of CEERTX is an optional space pointer, @exit_arg, addressing the argument to be passed to the invocation exit procedure when the target invocation ends abnormally. The third parameter of CEERTX is optional structure fc of type FEEDBACK (see Data Type Definitions of ILE CEE APIs for details). The invocation exit procedure registered by CEERTX accepts only one parameter, the space pointer @exit_arg passed to CEERTX. The CEEUTX API accepts an input procedure pointer and removes a previous registration of it for the target invocation. If the same procedure is registered for the invocation more than once, CEEUTX processes the registrations in last in/first out (LIFO) order. The following RPG example, eoj10.rpgle, demonstrates the basic usage of CEERTX.

     h dftactgrp(*no) bnddir('QC2LE')

     * Prototype of CEERTX

     d ceertx         pr                 extproc('CEERTX')

     d   @exit_proc                   *   procptr

     d     @exit_arg                       *   options(*omit)

     d     fc                         12a     options(*omit)

     * Prototype of CEEUTX

     d ceeutx         pr                 extproc('CEEUTX')

     d   @exit_proc                   *   procptr

     d     fc                         12a     options(*omit)

     * Prototype of libc routine sleep()

     d sleep           pr           10i 0 extproc('sleep')

     d                               10u 0 value

    *   Invocation exit procedure

     d inv_exit       pr

     d     @arg                         *

     d @exit_proc     s               *   procptr

     d                                       inz(%paddr(inv_exit))

     d @arg           s               * inz(%addr(hello))

     d hello           s             20a     inz('Hello from INV-EXIT')


           ceertx(@exit_proc : @arg : *omit);


           *inlr = *on;


     p inv_exit       b

     d inv_exit      pi

     d     @arg                         *

     d arg             s             20a     based(@arg)


           dsply 'Exit Arg' '' arg;


     p                 e

To test EOJ10, you can simply submit a batch job calls EOJ10, end it with a ENDJOB *IMMED command, and then check the QSYSOPR message queue for the output message of EOJ10.

Monitor for End Job Operations via the *EXT Scope Message

The Send Scope Message (QMHSNDSM) API sends a scope message to a call stack entry. Scope messages are a way to call a program when the call stack entry that called the QMHSNDSM API ends or when the job using this API ends. The exit can be either normal or abnormal. The three scope types (*EXT, *PGM, and *CSE) indicate when the scope-handling program should be called. As Simon mentioned in a 2011 post, to have the scope-handling program run at job or routing step ending, specify *EXT for the scope type parameter. To unregister a scope-handling program, you can remove the previously sent scope message by using the Remove Program Messages (QMHRMVPM) API.

An interesting part of the QMHSNDSM API's design is that it distinguishes between a normal exit of an invocation and a transfer control. The difference between program scoping (*PGM) and call stack entry (*CSE) scoping is in how they handle a transfer control. When a transfer control occurs, the scope-handling program is called for scope type *PGM because the program or ILE procedure ended, but the scope-handling program is not called for scope type *CSE because the call stack is still active.

The following is an RPG example, eoj11.rpgle, that monitors an end job operation by registering itself as a *EXT scope program. When the number of parameters passed to EOJ11 is more than zero, EOJ11 works as a scope program.

     h dftactgrp(*no) bnddir('QC2LE')

     * API error code structure

     d qusec_t         ds                 qualified

     d                                       based(@dummy)

     d     bytes_in                   10i 0

     d     bytes_out                   10i   0

     d     msgid                       7a

     d                               1a

     * Message-specific message data

     * Prototype of the Send Scope Message   (QMHSNDSM) API

     d QMHSNDSM       pr                  extpgm('QMHSNDSM')

     d     type                       10a

     d     scope_pgm                   20a

     d     arg                         1a     options(*varsize)

     d     arg_len                     10i   0

     d     msg_key                    4a

     d     ec                                 likeds(qusec_t)

     * Prototype of libc routine sleep()

     d sleep           pr           10i 0 extproc('sleep')

     d                               10u 0 value

     d scope_type     s             10a     inz('*EXT')

     d scope_pgm       s             20a     inz('EOJ11     *LIBL')

     d arg             s             20a   inz('Hi,   scope program!')

     d arg_len         s             10i 0 inz(32)

     d msg_key         s             4a

     d ec                ds                 likeds(qusec_t)

     d text           s             30a

     d i_main         pr                 extpgm('EOJ11')

     d     greeting                   20a

     d i_main         pi

     d     greeting                   20a


           if %parms() > 0; // Now, EOJ11   works as a scope program.

               // Do cleanup works

               dsply 'Scope-handling program   invoked' '';

               text = 'ARG: ' + greeting;

               dsply text '';

              dsply 'Cleanup, cleanup, cleanup ...'   '';

               *inlr = *on;



           // Register myself as a *EXT   scope-handling program

           ec.bytes_in = %len(ec);

           QMHSNDSM( scope_type

                  : scope_pgm

                   : arg

                   : arg_len

                   : msg_key

                   : ec);

           // Do my works

           dsply 'Doing my works ...' '';


           *inlr = *on;


To test EOJ11, submit a batch job that runs EOJ11, and then end it with an ENDJOB *IMMED command. The messages sent to the QSYSOPR message queue might look like the following:

   DSPLY   Doing my work ...            

   Job 531775/LJL/A was ended by user LJL.

   DSPLY   Scope-handling program invoked

   DSPLY   ARG: Hi, scope program!        

   DSPLY   Cleanup, cleanup, cleanup ...  

Know the End Reason of an MI Process in an Invocation Exit, ACTGRP Exit, or Scope Program

An end job operation is one of the reasons that an invocation exit, ACTGRP exit, or scope program registered in an MI process is invoked, but it's not the only reason. An unhandled exception or an unhandled signal delivered to the process with a default signal-handling action of terminate the process or terminate the request would also lead to process termination. To know the process termination reason exactly, you can materialize the Process Status Indicators via the Materialize Process Attributes (MATPRATR) MI instruction with option hex 20 within an invocation exit, ACTGRP exit, or scope program. The Process Initial Internal Termination (PIIT) status and the Process Initial External Termination (PIET) status in the materialized Process Status Indicators represent the final internal termination status and external termination status prior to entering the termination phase, respectively, and are updated by the most recent internal termination action and external termination action, respectively. It is possible for both the PIIT and PIET status fields to contain valid termination status values. The PIIT and/or PIET status fields contain valid termination status values when an invocation exit, ACTGRP exit, or scope program registered for the process is invoked. The 1-byte PIIT reason and 1-byte PIET reason fields represent the reason of final internal termination and final external termination, respectively. The following ILE RPG prototype of the MATPRATR instruction and the definition of the materialization template structure for Process Status Indicators, matpratr_20_t, are extracted from mih-prcthd.rpgleinc. Possible internal/external process termination reasons are listed in the comments of subfields piit and piet of the matpratr_20_t structure.


     * Materialization template for   MATPRATR, option hex 20 --

     * Process status indicators.


     d matpratr_20_t   ds                 qualified

     d                                       based(@dummy)

     d     bytes_in                   10i   0

     d     bytes_out                   10i   0


     * Thread state.

     * Bits 0-2: External existence state

     *     000 = Suspended due to Suspend Process or Suspend Thread

     *     010 = Suspended due to Suspend Process or Suspend Thread,

     *         in instruction wait

     *     100 = Active, in ineligible wait

     *     101 = Active, in current MPL

     *     110 = Active, in instruction wait

     *     111 = Active, in instruction wait, in current MPL

     * Bit 3: Invocation exit active

     * Bit 4: Stopped by a signal

     * Bit 5: Suspended by Suspend Thread

      *   Bits 6-7: Reserved (binary 0)

     * Bits 8-10: Internal processing phase

     *     001 = Initiation phase

     *     010 = Problem phase

     *     100 = Termination phase

     * Bits 11-15: Reserved (binary 0)


     d     thd_state                    2a

     d     pending_thread_interrupts...

     d                               2a


     * Process initial internal termination   status


     * @remark The process initial internal   termination status

     * represents the final internal   termination status prior to

     * entering the termination phase. It is   updated by the most

     * recent internal termination action.   It is possible for both

     * the process initial internal   termination status and the

     * process initial external termination   status fields to contain

     * valid non-zero values.


     d     piit                         3a


     * Hex 80 = Return from first invocation   in problem phase

     * Hex 40 = Return from first invocation   in initiation phase and

     *         no problem phase program specified.

     * Hex 21 = Terminate Thread instruction   issued against the

     *         initial thread by a thread in the   process.

     * Hex 20 = Terminate Process   instruction issued by a thread

    *           within the process.

     * Hex 18 = An unhandled signal with a   default signal handling

     *         action of terminate the process or   terminate the

     *         request was delivered to the   process.

     * Hex 10 = Exception was not handled by   the initial thread in

     *         the process.

     * Hex 00 = Process terminated   externally.


     d       iit_reason                 1a     overlay(piit:1)

     * Initial internal termination code

     d       iit_code                  2a   overlay(piit:2)


     * Process initial external termination   status


     * @remark The process external internal   termination status

     * represents the final external   termination status prior to

     * entering the termination phase. It is   updated by the most

     * recent external termination action.   It is possible for both

     * the process initial internal   termination status and the

     * process initial external termination   status fields to contain

     * valid non-zero values.


     d     piet                         3a

     * Initial external termination reason:

     *     Hex 80 = Terminate Process instruction issued explicitly to

     *           the process by a thread in   another process.

     *     Hex 40 = Terminate Thread instruction issued explicitly to

     *           the initial thread of the process   by a thread in

     *           another process.

     *     Hex 00 = Process terminated internally.

     d       iet_reason                 1a     overlay(piet:1)

     * Initial external termination code

     d       iet_code                   2a     overlay(piet:2)


     * Process final termination status


     * @remark The process final termination   status is presented as

     * event-related data in the terminate   process event. Usually the

     * event is the only source of the   process final termination

     * status since the process will cease   to exist before its

     * attributes can be materialized.


     * @remark The process final termination   status describes how the

     * final phase (aka the termination   phase) of the process

     * terminated. It is updated by the most   recent termination

     * action for the final process phase.


     d     pfit                        3a


     * @BIF _MATPRATR1 (Materialize Process   Attributes (MATPRATR))


     d matpratr1       pr                 extproc('_MATPRATR1')

     d       receiver                         likeds(matpratr_tmpl_t)

     d       option                    1a


     * @BIF _MATPRATR2 (Materialize Process   Attributes (MATPRATR))


     d matpratr2       pr                 extproc('_MATPRATR2')

     d       receiver                         likeds(matpratr_tmpl_t)

     d       pcs                        *

     d       option                     1a

The pcs operand of _MATPRATR2 identifies the process control space (PCS) object associated with the process whose attributes are to be materialized.

The following RPG example, eoj12.rpgle, reports the following information available in the Process Status Indicators returned by MATPRATR: current process phase, whether invocation exit is currently active, process initial internal termination (PIIT) reason, and process initial external termination (PIET) reason. Add a call to program EOJ12 to previously presented example ACTGRP exit, invocation exit, or scope programs so that you can tell whether your job is ending due to end job operations or not.

     h dftactgrp(*no) bnddir('QC2LE')

     fQSYSPRT   O     f 132       printer

     /copy mih-prcthd.rpgleinc

     d w               s             1a

     d item_name       s             40a   inz('Item   name')

     d item_value     s           120a     inz('...')

     d psts           ds                 likeds(matpratr_20_t)

     d opt             s             1a     inz(x'20')

     d a2             s             2a


           // Materialize process state   indicators of the current MI process

           psts.bytes_in =   %len(matpratr_20_t);

           matpratr1(psts : opt);

           // Current process phase -- bits   8-10 of thd_state

           a2 = %bitand(psts.thd_state :   x'00E0');

         item_name = 'Current process   phase:';

           except ITEMREC;


           when a2 = x'0020';

               item_value = 'Initiation   phase';

           when a2 = x'0040';

               item_value = 'Problem phase';

         when a2 = x'0080';

               item_value = 'Termination   phase';


           except VALREC;

           // Invocation exit active?

           item_name = 'Invocation exit   active:';

           except ITEMREC;

           a2 = %bitand(psts.thd_state :   x'1000');

           if a2 = x'0000';

               item_value = 'No';


               item_value = 'Yes';


           except VALREC;

           if psts.iit_reason = x'00' and   psts.iet_reason = x'00';

              *inlr = *on;



           // Initial internal termination   reason

           item_name = 'Initial internal   termination reason:';

           except ITEMREC;


           when psts.iit_reason = x'80';

               item_value = 'Return from   first invocation '

                   + 'in problem phase';

           when psts.iit_reason = x'40';

               item_value = 'Return from   first invocation in '

                   + 'initiation phase and no   problem phase program '

                   + 'specified';

           when psts.iit_reason = x'21';

               item_value = 'Terminate Thread   instruction issued against '

                   + 'the initial thread by a   thread in the process';

          when psts.iit_reason = x'20';

               item_value = 'Terminate   Process instruction issued '

                   + 'by a thread within the   process';

           when psts.iit_reason = x'18';

               item_value = 'An unhandled   signal with a default signal '

                   + 'handling action of   terminate the process or '

                   + 'terminate the request   was delivered to the process';

           when psts.iit_reason = x'10';

               item_value = 'Exception was   not handled by the initial '

                   + 'thread in the process';

           when psts.iit_reason = x'00';

               item_value = 'Process   terminated externally';


           except VALREC;

           // Initial external termination   reason

           item_name = 'Initial external   termination reason:';

           except ITEMREC;


           when psts.iet_reason = x'80';

               item_value = 'Terminate   Process instruction issued '

                   + 'explicitly to the   process by a thread in '

                   + 'another process';

           when psts.iet_reason = x'40';

               item_value = 'Terminate Thread   instruction issued '

                   + 'explicitly to the   initial thread of the process '

                  + 'by a thread in another process';

           when psts.iet_reason = x'00';

               item_value = 'Process   terminated internally';


           except VALREC;

           *inlr = *on;


     oQSYSPRT   e              ITEMREC

     o                       item_name

     oQSYSPRT   e           VALREC

     o                       w                   5

     o                       item_value

For example, add a call to EOJ12 to the invocation exit procedure of the previous RPG example eoj10.rpgle as shown:

     p inv_exit       b

     d   eoj12           pr                 extpgm('EOJ12')

     d inv_exit       pi

     d     @arg                         *

     d arg             s             20a     based(@arg)



           dsply 'Exit Arg' '' arg;


     p                 e

Submit a batch job that runs EOJ10, end the submitted job with an ENDJOB *IMMED command, and then check the output spooled file printed by EOJ12. The output of EOJ12 might look like the following:

Current process phase:

     Problem phase

Invocation exit active:


Initial internal termination reason:

     Process terminated externally

Initial external termination reason:

     Terminate Process instruction issued   explicitly to the process by a thread in another process

Submit a batch job to call EOJ10 again, and end the submitted job with an ENDJOB *CNTRLD command. The resulting output of EOJ12 might look like this:

Current process phase:

     Problem phase

Invocation exit active:


Initial internal termination reason:

     Terminate Process instruction issued by   a thread within the process

Initial external termination reason:

     Process terminated internally

Now you know how to tell whether a job is ending due to an end job command within an invocation exit, an ACTGRP exit, or a scope program.

Final Thoughts

As mentioned in Part I of this article, an end job command can specify a delay time, either via the DELAY parameter of an ENDJOB *CNTRLD command or the QENDJOBLMT system value for an ENDJOB *IMMED command. After the delay time specified by an end job command elapses, the job will be ended by the system. Be aware that the same is not the case for a job utilizing one of these three end-of-job cleanup techniques: invocation exits, ACTGRP exits, and scope programs. Any delay or hanging that occurs in an invocation exit, an ACTGRP exit, or a scope program will delay or hang the end-of-job processing. Imagine that you issue an ENDJOB *IMMED command to end a job. An invocation exit procedure registered for one of the programs currently in the job's call stack receives control and starts doing necessary cleanup work. However, the invocation exit is stuck for some reason (for example, trying to allocate an exclusive lock on an MI object being used by many processes). In this condition, how long it will take the job to end is undetermined. The last chance to end such a job is by issuing an End Job Abnormal (ENDJOBABN) command to the job 10 minutes after the previous ENDJOB *IMMED command.

Junlei Li

Junlei Li is a programmer from Tianjin, China, with 10 years of experience in software design and programming. Junlei Li began programming under i5/OS (formerly known as AS/400, iSeries) in late 2005. He is familiar with most programming languages available on i5/OS—from special-purpose languages such as OPM/ILE RPG to CL to general-purpose languages such as C, C++, Java; from strong-typed languages to script languages such as QShell and REXX. One of his favorite programming languages on i5/OS is machine interface (MI) instructions, through which one can discover some of the internal behaviors of i5/OS and some of the highlights of i5/OS in terms of operating system design.


Junlei Li's Web site is, where his open-source project i5/OS Programmer's Toolkit ( is documented.







  • Mobile Computing and the IBM i

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    Protect your system from unauthorized network access through readily available PC tools

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    SB PowerTech WC Generic

    The IFS is one of the most commonly overlooked aspects of IBM i security
    Experts’ fears surrounding the risks associated with poor configuration were recently confirmed by the 2016 State of IBM i Security Study. Published annually, the results reveal most Power Systems lack adequate security controls and auditing measures.
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    - Defining IFS
    - How the IFS is configured
    - Common IFS security mistakes
    - What a virus can do to IBM i through the IFS
    - Tracking user activity

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    SB PowerTech WC Generic

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    - Break the Ostrich Syndrome
    - Develop a Security Policy
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    - Perform Security Event Logging and Review
    - Use “Best of Breed” Technologies
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    - IBM i-specific barriers to compliance
    - How PowerTech security solutions help you fulfill PCI requirements, meet compliance guidelines, and satisfy auditors
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  • Implementing Multiple Layers of Defense

    SB PowerTech WC Generic

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    SB PowerTech WC GenericIBM i is known for its security, but this OS could be more vulnerable than you think.
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    Watch the webinar today!


  • Easy Mobile Development

    SB Profound WC Generic

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  • Profound UI: Unlock True Modernization from your IBM i Enterprise

    SB Profound PPL 5491

    Modern, web-based applications can make your Enterprise more efficient, connected and engaged. This session will demonstrate how the Profound UI framework is the best and most native way to convert your existing RPG applications and develop new modern applications for your business. Additionally, you will learn how you can address modernization across your Enterprise, including databases and legacy source code, with Profound Logic.
    We will demonstrate how Profound UI:
    - Goes beyond simple screen-scraping to truly modernize your RPG applications
    - Uses RPG Open Access and your own RPG code and development talent to modernize
    - Supports rapid development with an easy-to-use, drag-and-drop Designer
    - Integrates with our on-the-fly modernization, mobile development, and Enterprise Modernization solutions

  • 5 New and Unique Ways to Use the IBM i Audit Journal

    SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericHigh availability for IBM i has been a hot topic in 2017, jumping 20% from our 2016 survey to take the #2 seat on IT priority lists just behind cybersecurity. And no surprise with these two topics so closely tied to your most valuable asset: your irreplaceable business data.
    With major airline outages last year and the recent ransomware attacks, you must be asking yourself: am I doing everything I can to protect my organization’s data?
    Tune in as our panel of IBM i high availability experts—Tom Huntington, Matt Staddler, and Cole Ragland—deliver lively discussion around the top high availability issues of today, including:

    • Why companies don’t test role swaps when they know they should
    • Whether high availability in the cloud makes sense for IBM i users
    • Why some organizations don’t have high availability yet
    • How to get high availability up and running at your organization
    • High availability considerations for today’s security concerns

    There are no do-overs when it comes to your data. Once it’s gone, it’s gone...unless you have a data replication layer in place to protect it. Learn the value of these strategic solutions and how you can implement them in a hurry—watch now!


  • Profound.js 2.0: Extend the Power of Node to your IBM i Applications

    SB Profound WC 5541In this Webinar, we'll demonstrate how Profound.js 2.0 enables you to easily adopt Node.js in your business, and to take advantage of the many benefits of Node, including access to a much larger pool of developers for IBM i and access to countless reusable open source code packages on npm (Node Package Manager).
    You will see how Profound.js 2.0 allows you to:

    • Provide RPG-like capabilities for server-side JavaScript.
    • Easily create web and mobile application interfaces for Node on IBM i.
    • Let existing RPG programs call Node.js modules directly, and vice versa.
    • Automatically generate code for Node.js.
    • Automatically converts existing RPGLE code into clean, simplified Node.js code.

    Download and watch today!


  • Make Modern Apps You'll Love with Profound UI & Profound.js

    SB Profound WC 5541Roses are red, your UIs are green...It's time to make your apps proud to be seen!
    Whether you have green screens or a drab GUI, your outdated apps can benefit from modern source code, modern GUIs, and modern tools.
    Profound Logic's Alex Roytman and Liam Allan are here to show you how Free-format RPG and Node.js make it possible to deliver applications your whole business will love.
    In this webinar, you'll learn how you can use both Profound UI and Profound.js to:

    • Transform legacy RPG code to modern free-format RPG and Node.js
    • Deliver truly modern application interfaces with Profound UI
    • Extend your RPG applications to include Web Services and NPM packages with Node.js

    This webinar will include a live product demonstration and Q&A with the presenters.

    Download and watch today!

  • 2017 IBM i Marketplace Revealed


    IBM i is one of technology’s best-kept secrets, with little information available about what IBM i users are doing on this server. Even companies that use this technology struggle to explain to their own teams what IBM i stands for and who else is using it.
    The IBM i Marketplace Survey—now in its 3rd year—was designed to solve this problem. Watch this on-demand webinar for the exclusive results of the 2017 survey. IBM i Champion Tom Huntington is joined by a panel of technology experts to discuss year-over-year trends and new insights. The panel will discuss:

    • What other platforms do you run alongside IBM i?
    • What programming and Open Source languages are you using?
    • What are your top IT issues?
    • What version of POWER and what OS level is most prevalent?
    • Are you expanding your usage of IBM i?
    • Is IBM i a good ROI?

    The expert panel will provide industry insight and comments about the results. When the webinar concludes, you’ll get access to the full results.

  • Accelerating Programmer Productivity with Sequel


    Most business intelligence tools are just that: tools, a means to an end but not an accelerator. Yours could even be slowing you down. But what if your BI tool didn't just give you a platform for query-writing but also improved programmer productivity?
    Watch the recorded webinar to see how Sequel:

    • Makes creating complex results simple
    • Eliminates barriers to data sources
    • Increases flexibility with data usage and distribution

    Accelerated productivity makes everyone happy, from programmer to business user.

  • Business Intelligence is Changing: Make Your Game Plan


    Everyone wants a piece of your business data. But keeping up with data access requests in the era of constantly growing data is a challenge. As a result, your IT department can be overwhelmed, inundated, and constantly needing to play catch-up.
    It’s time to develop a strategy that will help you meet your informational challenges head-on. Watch the webinar to learn how to set your IT department up for business intelligence success in 2018.
    You’ll learn how the right data access tool will help you:

    • Access IBM i data faster
    • Deliver useful information to executives and business users
    • Empower users with secure data access

    Ready to make your game plan and finally keep up with your data access requests?

  • Controlling Insider Threats on IBM i


    Let’s face facts: servers don’t hack other servers. Despite the avalanche of regulations, news headlines remain chock full of stories about data breaches, all initiated by insiders or intruders masquerading as insiders.
    User profiles are often duplicated or restored and are rarely reviewed for the appropriateness of their current configuration. This increases the risk of the profile being able to access data without the intended authority or having privileges that should be reserved for administrators.
    Watch noted security expert Robin Tatam as he discusses a new approach for onboarding new users on IBM i and best-practices techniques for managing and monitoring activities after they sign on.

  • Don't Just Settle for Query/400...


    There’s a better way to run your queries. With an advanced query tool like Sequel Data Access, you can deliver the IBM i data your organization needs quickly and efficiently—without the hang-ups.
    In this session, we’ll address common frustrations with Query/400, discuss major data access and distribution trends, and help you understand what to look for in a more advanced query tool.
    Plus, you’ll learn how a tool like Sequel lightens IT’s load by:

    • Accessing real-time data, so you can make real-time decisions
    • Providing run-time prompts, so users can help themselves
    • Delivering instant results in Microsoft Excel and PDF, without the wait
    • Automating the query process with on-demand data, dashboards, and scheduled jobs
    • Watch the webinar and learn why you shouldn’t just settle for Query/400.


  • How to Manage Documents the Easy Way


    What happens when your company depends on an outdated document management strategy?
    Everything is harder.
    Capturing documents means scanning and filing—which takes you away from tasks that actually matter to the business. Managing documents means sorting through an endless sea of shared folders or filing cabinets—and sometimes documents can’t be found. Distributing documents means following a frustrating, manual process for routing documents internally and sending them to vendors and customers.
    You don’t need to stick with status quo anymore.
    Watch the webinar to learn how to put effective document management into practice and:

    • Capture documents faster, instead of wasting everyone’s time
    • Manage documents easily, so you can always find them
    • Distribute documents automatically, and move on to the next task


  • Lessons Learned from the AS/400 Breach


    Get actionable info to avoid becoming the next cyberattack victim.
    In “Data breach digest—Scenarios from the field,” Verizon documented an AS/400 security breach. Whether you call it AS/400, iSeries, or IBM i, you now have proof that the system has been breached.
    Watch IBM i security expert Robin Tatam give an insightful discussion of the issues surrounding this specific scenario.
    Robin will also draw on his extensive cybersecurity experience to discuss policies, processes, and configuration details that you can implement to help reduce the risk of your system being the next victim of an attack.

  • Monitor VIOS (and AIX) from Your IBM i


    Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) runs on AIX and allows you to share input/output resources across logical partitions. The health of your VIOS server is critical to the performance of all your Power server partitions, so monitoring it is a must.
    Our 2017 IBM i Marketplace Survey Results uncovered a cool trend: an increasing number of IBM i shops are running AIX instances alongside IBM i on Power Systems servers. We like to see these systems playing nicely together on the same server, though it does shine a spotlight on shared resources.
    During this 30-minute recording, our experts demonstrate the new VIOS and AIX monitoring capabilities in Robot Monitor. You’ll learn about:

    • The top AIX metrics that impact VIOS
    • Real-time monitoring with dashboard displays
    • Threshold and notification options
    • Identifying trends to better allocate resources

    With VIOS/AIX running alongside IBM i, you need visibility into your entire Power environment.
    Watch now to see how Robot Monitor can get you there!



  • Overwhelmed by Operating Systems?


    You’re responsible for looking after Windows, Linux, AIX, and VIOS, but you worry that you don’t understand their complexities well enough to make your job effective—or easy.
    No problem! Simplify the management of multiple operating systems and applications without becoming experts in each area.
    In this 30-minute recorded webinar, our experts demonstrate how you can:

    • Manage multiple platforms from a central location
    • View monitoring results in a single pane of glass on your desktop or mobile device
    • Take advantage of best practice, plug-and-play monitoring templates
    • Create rules to automate daily checks across your entire infrastructure
    • Receive notification if something is wrong or about to go wrong

    This presentation includes a live demo of Network Server Suite and shows how easy monitoring multiple operating systems and applications can be using point-and-click technology.


  • Real-Time Disk Monitoring with Robot Monitor


    When IBM i disk space pulls its notorious disappearing act, you don’t have time to waste figuring out how the trick is done. You need to know when disk space starts to disappear and where it has gone before system performance and productivity start to suffer.
    Looking behind the curtain to keep a close eye on disk space—especially in a multi-partition environment—can have its challenges, but every good admin can have an ace up their sleeve. Our experts will show you how Robot Monitor can help you pinpoint exactly when your auxiliary storage starts to disappear and why, so you can start taking a proactive approach to disk monitoring and analysis. You’ll also get insight into:

    • The main sources of disk consumption
    • How to monitor temporary storage and QTEMP objects in real time
    • How to monitor objects and libraries in real time and near-real time
    • How to track long-term disk trends

    Start seeing through the sleight of hand and get instant visibility into disk usage. Add advance warning of potential threats and—abracadabra!—you’ll reduce the risk of disk space depletion and curb the sudden flurry of activity to clean things up.


  • Stop Re-keying Data Between IBM I and Other Applications


    Still following manual processes for extracting and transferring data across platforms? You’re not alone. Many business still depend on RPG for their daily business processes and report generation. And that leads to a lot of manual effort.
    Wouldn’t it be nice if you could stop re-keying data between IBM i and other applications? Or if you could stop replicating data and start processing orders faster? Or what if you could automatically extract data from existing reports instead of re-keying?
    It’s all possible. Watch this webinar to learn about:

    • The data dilemma
    • 3 ways to stop re-keying data
    • Data automation in practice

    Plus, you’ll see a demonstration of how data automation software from HelpSystems will help you finally stop re-keying data.


  • Survey Results: 2018 Top Cybersecurity Risks and Mitigation Strategies


    Protecting your organization from cyberthreats has never been more important—or more difficult.
    IT pros have many tactics to choose from, but time (and budgets!) are not unlimited. The key is prioritizing risks and identifying the most effective ways to mitigate the danger.
    In 2018, HelpSystems surveyed more than 600 IT and cybersecurity professionals to find out what security exploits loom largest and what strategies they’re turning to for protection.
    In this on-demand webinar, our team of cybersecurity security experts analyzes results. You’ll learn about:

    • Security strategies your peers are most interested in implementing
    • How managers and executives prioritize security
    • Who is responsible for cybersecurity at organizations around the world
    • Where IT pros turn for assistance with security

    You'll also get practical tips for using this data to drive cybersecurity conversations at your organization.


  • The Top Five RPG Open Access Myths....BUSTED!


    When it comes to IBM® Rational® Open Access: RPG Edition (also known as RPG Open Access), there are still many misconceptions - especially where application modernization is concerned!

    In this Webinar, we'll address some of the biggest myths about RPG Open Access, including:

    • Modernizing with RPG OA requires significant changes to the source code
    • The RPG language is outdated and impractical for modernizing applications
    • Modernizing with RPG OA is the equivalent to "screen scraping"

    This Webinar features IBM i expert Alison Butterill, and Profound Logic’s Brian May and Alex Roytman.


    Watch the On-demand Webinar Now!

  • Time to Remove the Paper from Your Desk and Become More Efficient


    Do your users keep paperwork on their desk until it's processed?
    Are people constantly removing documents from filing cabinets?
    What happens when your company depends on an outdated document management strategy?
    Too much paper is wasted—approximately 1,000 pages per month per worker.
    Attempts to locate documents in endless filing cabinets drive your employees crazy.
    And distributing documents to customers, vendors, and business partners is expensive and takes up far too much time.
    These are just three common reasons why it might be time for your company to implement a paperless document management system.
    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally

    Plus, our experts will provide a live demonstration of how implementing a document management solution will quickly solve your paper-based problems, so you can be more

  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400


    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days


  • TRY the One Package That Solves All Your Document Design and Printing Challenges

    SB CYBRA PPL 5382

    Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product. Why support 5 different products, when you can do it all with MarkMagic?

    - Drive over 450 different printer types.
    - Create invoices, statements, checks.
    - Set dynamic rules that transform output on the fly.
    - Conditionally distribute via Email, fax, or PDF.
    - Integrate with your current applications in minutes.
    - Preview printing on screen.
    - Native System i, Windows, AIX, Linux.

    Try MarkMagic today for free

  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413

    Disaster protection is vital to every business. Yet, it often consists of patched together procedures that are prone to error. From automatic backups to data encryption to media management, Robot automates the routine (yet often complex) tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable.
    Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution.
    Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits.
    Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413

    Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. Messages need a response and resources must be monitored—often over multiple systems and across platforms. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution.
    Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Keep your critical applications and data available. Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413

    The thought of printing, distributing, and storing iSeries reports manually may reduce you to tears. Paper and labor costs associated with report generation can spiral out of control. Mountains of paper threaten to swamp your files. Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution.
    Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413

    For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i. With batch job creation and scheduling at its core, the Robot Job Scheduling Solution reduces the opportunity for human error and helps you maintain service levels, automating even the biggest, most complex runbooks.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. brKey features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • MS Office Connector for Query/400...FREE Trial!

    SB NGS PPL 5130

    NGS' Qport Office enables Windows users to run IBM Query/400 queries to:
    - Create and update Excel spreadsheets and Access databases
    - Create Word documents
    - Send to Windows screen and PC printers
    No query conversion is required. Works with i5/OS V5R1 & above. Installs in minutes!
    If you don’t have a budget to replace IBM Query/400, but want your users to have one click enhanced output of their queries.... Request the online license agreement and product download instructions today!
    Offer good through December 31, 2016.

  • Control and Monitor User Access from Desktop PCs (ODBC, FTP)

    SB PowerTech 5422

    Protect your company by monitoring network traffic to your IBM i servers with the industry-leading exit program, PowerTech Network Security.
    Without visibility into IBM i's exit points, your users could be viewing, changing, or even deleting sensitive data—and you wouldn’t know!
    Network Security lets you monitor and control access to over 30 exit points, including:

    - ODBC
    - FTP
    - DDM
    - Remote command
    - Fileserve (mapped drives to IFS)
    It’s easy to set up custom access rules and get notified in real-time when security events occur.
    Stop “back door” access today. Try Network Security free for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429

    More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. Managing the complexities of today's operating systems, business applications, and networks challenges even the most knowledgeable IT professionals. The cost to an enterprise of unplanned downtime, loss of human expertise during sick leave or vacation, and system/application or environmental failure can be devastating. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center (and staff) efficiency.