Active monitoring and log collection are at the top of the list of effective security controls. IBM i (AS/400, iSeries) users have to solve some special challenges to implement this critical security control.
Editor's note: This article introduces the white paper
IBM i customers often run multiple back-office applications on the IBM i server and it is a well-known repository for sensitive information and an active target of cyber criminals and state actors. In this eBook we discuss the core requirements for a successful active monitoring strategy, how to identify sources of security information on the IBM i platform, and steps you can take to implement an IBM i active monitoring solution.
Active monitoring (sometimes referred to as Continuous Monitoring) is a critical security control for all organizations. And it is one of the most effective security controls you can deploy. The large majority of security breaches occur on systems that have been compromised days, weeks, or even months before sensitive data is lost. A recent Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report1 indicates that a full 84 percent of all breaches were detected in system logs. This is why the Center for Internet Security includes active monitoring as a Critical Security Control (Control number 6).
There are several elements of a truly effective Active Monitoring strategy:
Central Collection and Repository of All Eevents
Attackers almost never start with your core IBM i server directly. They attack a web application or infect a user PC and work their way into the IBM i server. A defensible active monitoring strategy has to collect events from across the entire organization. By the time they show up on your IBM i server they have probably compromised a number of intermediate systems and an opportunity to prevent the breach has been missed. Collect all events across your entire IT infrastructure to gain the best early detection opportunities.
Real Time Event Collection
Data breaches are happening much faster than in the past. In some cases the loss of data happens just minutes after the initial breach. This means that you must collect security events in real time. Good active monitoring solutions are able to digest threat information in real time and give you the chance to deter them. Avoid batch event collection â€“ you can collect IBM i security audit journal information in real time and you should.
Event correlation is key to an effect active monitoring solution. This is typically accomplished through the use of special software implemented in Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solutions. Highly automated SIEM solutions have the ability to correlate events across a large number of systems and automatically identify potential problems. They do exactly what we want computer systems to do â€“ handle large amounts of data and apply intelligent interpretation of the data.
Anomaly detection is another aspect of active monitoring. That unusual system login at 3:00am on a Sunday morning would probably escape the attention of our human IT team members, but good active monitoring solutions can see that anomalous event and report on it.
Alerting and Resolution Management
When a problem is discovered we need to know about it as soon as possible. A good active monitoring solution will inform us through a variety of alerting channels. Emails, text, dashboards and other mechanisms can be deployed to bring attention to the problem - and we need to be able to track the resolution of the event! We are all processing too much information and it is easy to forget or misplace a problem.
Forensic tools are critical to an active monitoring solution as they enable the rapid analysis of an attackerâ€™s footprints in our system. The key tool is an effective and easy-to-use query application. Log data can include millions of events and be impossible to inspect without a good query tool. The ability to save queries and use them at a later time should also be a core feature of your forensic toolset.
Logging Sources on the IBM i
The IBM i server is a rich source of security information. Unlike many Windows and Linux server deployments the IBM i platform can host a complex mix of back-office applications, web applications, and open source applications and services. For convenience we will address these various log sources in terms of primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources should be given priority in your implementation processes, as the most critical events are likely to be found in primary event sources.
IBM Security Audit Journal QAUDJRN
When configured properly the IBM i server records a wide variety of security events in the security journal QAUDJRN. Events such as password failures, network authentication failures, failed SSL and TLS network negotiations, application and database authority failures, and many others go straight into the security audit journal QAUDJRN. This would naturally be the first focus of your event monitoring strategy. We discuss the setup and configuration of the QAUDJRN journal below.
System History File QHST
The system history message file QHST (actually a collection of files that start with the name QHST) is also a repository of important security information. All job start, job termination, and abnormal job termination events are recorded in the QHST files. Additionally, important operational messages are written to QHST files and should be collected and monitored.
The IBM i operating system provides a number of â€œhooksâ€ for network and other services on the IBM i platform. These hooks are referred to as exit points. IBM i customers or vendors can write applications that collect information and register them for the exit points. Once registered an exit point monitoring application can collect information on a wide variety of activities. These include information on inbound and outbound FTP sessions, TCP sockets activity, network authentication, administrative commands through Operations navigator, and many other core operating system services. A good active monitoring strategy should collect information from exit points and pass the information to the centralized log collection server.
Most IBM i customers do not deploy the server as a primary web server, but selected web applications and services are often incorporated into a customerâ€™s primary web deployment. The IBM i supports a rich set of web server platforms including IBM Websphere, PHP, Perl, Python, and traditional HTML/CGI services. When web applications are deployed on an IBM i server they are a target for traditional attacks. Web logs should be included in your event collection and monitoring strategy.