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Introducing Database Triggers

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A trigger is a predefined event that runs automatically whenever a specified action is performed on a table. In the “smart reality” and “Internet of Things” times that we live in, it’s the database equivalent of the shower turning itself on (and at the right temperature) when you enter the bathtub. The fun part is that you can be very specific about what happens when that predefined event occurs.

Before getting into the details, let me just add that there are two types of triggers: those you might already be familiar with: high-level programming language (HLL) triggers, written in RPG or one of the other languages the IBM i supports natively, and SQL triggers. I’ll stick to the same guidelines followed thus far and will discuss only SQL triggers. It’s true that most of the stuff I’ll talk about can also be done in an RPG program. Sometimes, it might even be better to adapt an existing HLL program and link it to a trigger via the ADDPFTRG (Add Physical File Trigger) CL command, especially if complex code is involved. However, for certain tasks, an SQL-only approach is preferable for reasons of clarity and future maintenance.

Having said that, let’s dissect the definition with which this section started, starting with the “specified action” part.

Editor's Note: This article is excerpted from chapter 9 of SQL for IBM i: A Database Modernization Guide, by Rafael Victória-Pereira.

What Triggers a Trigger?

Going back to my bathtub analogy, imagine that you enter your bathtub with your clothes on. Turning on the shower automagically doesn’t sound like a great idea now, right? Well, maybe just turning on the faucet, to start the water running, sounds better. Triggers, unlike tripwires, can be created to react only to specified actions. Because triggers are associated with tables, those actions are the I/O operations that somehow change the table: INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations.

I know, you’re thinking that reading the table’s records also changes its state, because it can cause locks, and so on. However, it’s not possible to create a trigger that goes off whenever records are read from a table, only for the three other I/O operations I mentioned. But there’s more to it: you can choose when the trigger goes off: before or after the action occurs. As you’ll see later in this chapter, this distinction is of paramount importance for some of the tasks you can rig a trigger to perform. Just a side note: instead of “goes off” or “is triggered,” I personally prefer the expression “is activated” to refer to the moment the metaphorical tripwire is pulled. So, from this point on, I’ll refer to activation to describe the moment the trigger is put to use.

 In a nutshell, here’s what you need to keep in mind about triggers: they execute a piece of code (SQL or HLL) when the records of the table they’re associated with are changed (via an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE operation). The execution of that piece of code can happen before or after the action that triggered it occurs.

Why Use Triggers?

Triggers are great at making stuff happen without human intervention, because they are activated whenever the action or actions with which they’re rigged happens. Yes, you read it right: it’s possible to associate a trigger with more than one action. You can define a trigger that executes a piece of code upon insertion or deletion of a record, for instance, no matter where these actions are initiated. And that’s the interesting part: triggers are linked to the table, not the operation’s source, which means that they’ll be activated no matter where the operation comes from: an RPG program, a remote ODBC call, or a DFU (remember that tool?) operation performed by you.

This “operation omniscience” makes triggers the perfect tool in a data-centric approach, because they allow you to “move” code from RPG applications to the database! Think of the possibilities: just to mention a possible scenario, you can simply rig a trigger that calls a complex (and typically old) RPG monolith instead of detailing the business logic to be rewritten in a “modern” language, in order to perform the same validations, with very little effort. You can reuse, instead of rewriting, your code by placing triggers in the appropriate tables, with the appropriate conditions, and call existing programs. Note that I do not advise perpetuating the use of old RPG monoliths. It’s always better to rewrite them in smaller and more manageable chunks of code—but that’s a discussion for another book.

You can also easily create audit files, validate data, and do much more—all at database level, thus making your database more “intelligent.” Do you see where I’m going with this? These are just some of the reasons you should use triggers: as part of a data-centric approach, they provide an amazing level of reusability and automation.

SQL Triggers’ Advantages

As I mentioned earlier, there are two types of triggers: SQL and external. You’re probably familiar with the external (created using RPG or other IBM i-compatible HLL) triggers.

What you are probably not aware of is that SQL triggers offer several advantages over external triggers:

  • SQL’s simpler and more powerful language makes trigger development easier and faster.
  • SQL triggers’ activation is more precise: you can, for instance, activate the trigger only if a certain column has a certain value. This type of operation is not possible with external triggers.
  • It’s much easier to write an SQL trigger to handle operations that modify more than one row in the target table.
  • With SQL, you can create INSTEAD OF triggers (which I’ll discuss later in this chapter).
  • SQL’s syntax makes it easier to write and configure one trigger to process several events.

After all this discussion, you’re probably itching to start coding. Well, I’ll get to that in a moment. First, I’ll explain how to create triggers using SQL and provide some examples to get you warmed up.

SQL Trigger Mechanics

What you’ve read so far hinted at (actually, it almost gave away) most of the mechanics of an SQL trigger. Let’s take a moment to see how the different pieces fit in the instruction’s syntax:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 1

It seems like a lot but isn’t that complicated, especially because I already mentioned (albeit without naming) all these different pieces. Let me go over them, one by one:

  • The trigger-name must be unique within the schema to which it belongs. It’s restricted by the same rule previously discussed in regard to SQL routines, so I won’t go into details about them here.
  • The trigger-activation-time refers to the moment in which the trigger is activated: BEFORE or AFTER the event that activated the trigger occurs (there’s also another option for this parameter, named INSTEAD OF, which I’ll leave for later).
  • The trigger-event indicates with which operation(s) the trigger is associated. I mentioned the I/O operations before, but let’s look at the syntax in more You can choose between INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. It’s also possible to use any combination of these three commands, separating the options with the OR keyword. For instance, a trigger that is activated by an insertion or deletion of a record will have INSERT or DELETE on the trigger-event part of its definition. By the way, the ON target-table refers to the table over which you’re setting up the trigger, because unlike SPs and UDFs, triggers don’t exist in a vacuum: they are always linked to a target table.
  • The trigger-granularity is one of most interesting parts of the trigger’s definition, as it allows you to decide how the trigger will be activated. You can choose between FOR EACH STATEMENT and FOR EACH ROW. This controls whether the triggered action is executed for each row or for each statement that has been changed in some For instance, an UPDATE operation could modify three rows, and the trigger would be activated either once or three times depending on the value defined here.
  • The next item in the list, trigger-mode, also plays a part in the execution, but in a different It controls the moment in which the trigger’s code is executed. If you choose MODE DB2ROW, then the trigger will be activated (in other words, its code will be executed) after each row operation. But if you choose MODE DB2SQL, then the database engine will wait until all the row operations are processed to execute all the respective trigger’s actions.
  • Finally, triggered-action is a placeholder for the actual SQL/PSM code that will run whenever the trigger is activated. It can be either a simple INSERT statement (as you’ll see in one of the examples, later in this chapter), or something much more complex (such as a full-fledged SQL/PSM routine for cross-table data validation, for instance).

Keep in mind that not all these pieces are mandatory, as you’ll see in a moment.

A Simple Trigger Example

To help you consolidate the syntax explanation, let’s analyze a simple scenario: someone wants to keep track of how many students exist in our UMADB students table, so they asked us to create a simple counters table that stores the total number of students, teachers, and classes that exist at any moment. “It will look good on our website,” they said. Note that this is a hypothetical and oversimplified scenario that ignores the fact that these three pieces of information can be obtained directly from the respective tables.

Instead of going to the RPG, Web, or any of the many simple programs or full-fledged applications that use the Students table, we’ll tackle the problem at its target, rather than its source(s): We’re going to create a trigger that is totally oblivious to where the student- creation request (read: the insert operation in the students table) came from, and that’s it! No need to change the existing HLL (IBM i “native” or otherwise) applications. The most pressing issue here is that you need to have an exclusive lock over the table to add the trigger. There are other potential issues, which I’ll address in greater depth later, but that’s the most important one—for now. So, let’s say we wait until a time no one is using the Students table, and we create our trigger with the following command:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 2

Let’s dissect this statement (and please pay attention, because you’re about to get some practice based on this), bit by bit. The first line (CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER UMADB_CHP5.Trg_log_student_creation) is quite obvious and follows the same principles of the previously presented SQL routines. It serves to identify the type and name of the SQL routine. In this case, I’m creating (or replacing, if it already exists) a trigger named Trg_log_student_creation in schema UMADB_CHP5. The second line (AFTER INSERT ON UMADB_CHP5.TBL_Students) tells us that this trigger is activated after each insert operation on table TBL_Students. So far, this follows the high-level syntax model I presented earlier.

However, I mentioned that not all the “pieces” of that model were mandatory. The next couple of lines (UPDATE UMADB_CHP5.Tbl_Counters and SET STUDENT_COUNTER = STUDENT_COUNTER + 1;) serve as an example of that statement, as they don’t refer to the trigger’s granularity or mode. In fact, these lines are this trigger’s action: an update to another table.

But let’s go back to the trigger’s granularity and mode; even though it’s not specified, the trigger granularity option is “still there”—its default, implicit value is the FOR EACH STATEMENT. Similarly, the trigger mode is also absent, so its default value—MODE DB2SQL—will be used, in order to keep compatibility with other DB2 implementations. Although this is a very simple trigger, I could have written the triggered action (my UPDATE statement) as a BEGIN/END block of code, because triggers are SQL routines, and SQL routines can be composed of multiple BEGIN/END blocks. I could rewrite my trigger to include the BEGIN/END lines, like this:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 3

Testing Your First Trigger

It’s now time to test this trigger. Naturally, I’ll use SQL statements for that. You can either type them or use the ones provided in the downloadable source code for this chapter. The Counters table doesn’t exist in the current UMADB schema, so you’ll need to create it, using the following statement:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 4

The next step is to add a new row, zeroing the counters:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 5

Just to check whether everything is in perfect order, let’s run a SELECT statement over the Counters table:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 6

All the pieces are set, so let’s test the trigger. This particular trigger is activated by INSERT operations in the Students table, so let’s create a new student. That task is, for now, a two-step process. First, I need to create a new person record:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 7

And then, using the person ID generated by the database, I can finally insert a new row in the Students table:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 8

Note that 17 is the person ID generated by the database when I inserted the record; yours will certainly be a different number, so run a quick SELECT over the Persons table, find out which is the correct number, and replace the 17 with that number. If you were expecting some sort of confirmation that the trigger was activated (or even that it exists) when the INSERT statement’s execution finished, you might be disappointed, because you won’t see it. To check whether the trigger was actually activated (and worked as expected), you need to check the Counters table again:

Introducing Database Triggers - Figure 9

There you’ll see the proof you were looking for: the student count’s value was changed from 0 to 1, so the trigger was executed, and it performed admirably the action it was designed to perform.

Time for Some Practice

Now that you know a little more about SQL triggers and their syntax, it’s time for some hands-on work. The idea is for you to create similar triggers to feed the other two columns of the Counters table—Teacher_Counter and Class_Counter—whenever new records are added to their corresponding tables (TBL_Teachers and TBL_Class_Definition, respectively). Just reread the section that dissects the trigger that keeps the Student_ Counter updated, and you should do fine. If you need a little push (or get totally lost), you’ll find the statement for creating the Counters table and the solutions (separate files for the two triggers) for this little practice session in this chapter’s downloadable source code. If you want to check whether these two triggers work, just adapt and run the test steps mentioned in the previous section to each particular situation.

Next time: Exploring More Complex Trigger Scenarios.

 

Rafael Victoria-Pereira

Rafael Victória-Pereira has more than 20 years of IBM i experience as a programmer, analyst, and manager. Over that period, he has been an active voice in the IBM i community, encouraging and helping programmers transition to ILE and free-format RPG. Rafael has written more than 100 technical articles about topics ranging from interfaces (the topic for his first book, Flexible Input, Dazzling Output with IBM i) to modern RPG and SQL in his popular RPG Academy and SQL 101 series on mcpressonline.com and in his books Evolve Your RPG Coding and SQL for IBM i: A Database Modernization Guide. Rafael writes in an easy-to-read, practical style that is highly popular with his audience of IBM technology professionals.

Rafael is the Deputy IT Director - Infrastructures and Services at the Luis Simões Group in Portugal. His areas of expertise include programming in the IBM i native languages (RPG, CL, and DB2 SQL) and in "modern" programming languages, such as Java, C#, and Python, as well as project management and consultancy.


MC Press books written by Rafael Victória-Pereira available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

Evolve Your RPG Coding: Move from OPM to ILE...and Beyond Evolve Your RPG Coding: Move from OPM to ILE...and Beyond
Transition to modern RPG programming with this step-by-step guide through ILE and free-format RPG, SQL, and modernization techniques.
List Price $79.95

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Flexible Input, Dazzling Output with IBM i Flexible Input, Dazzling Output with IBM i
Uncover easier, more flexible ways to get data into your system, plus some methods for exporting and presenting the vital business data it contains.
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SQL for IBM i: A Database Modernization Guide SQL for IBM i: A Database Modernization Guide
Learn how to use SQL’s capabilities to modernize and enhance your IBM i database.
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    Watch the webinar to learn more and discover how easy it can be to:

    • Capture
    • Manage
    • And distribute documents digitally

     

  • IBM i: It’s Not Just AS/400

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic

    IBM’s Steve Will talks AS/400, POWER9, cognitive systems, and everything in between

    Are there still companies that use AS400? Of course!

    IBM i was built on the same foundation.
    Watch this recorded webinar with IBM i Chief Architect Steve Will and IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington to gain a unique perspective on the direction of this platform, including:

    • IBM i development strategies in progress at IBM
    • Ways that Watson will shake hands with IBM i
    • Key takeaways from the AS/400 days

     

  • Ask the RDi Experts

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericWatch this recording where Jim Buck, Susan Gantner, and Charlie Guarino answered your questions, including:

    • What are the “hidden gems” in RDi that can make me more productive?
    • What makes RDi Debug better than the STRDBG green screen debugger?
    • How can RDi help me find out if I’ve tested all lines of a program?
    • What’s the best way to transition from PDM to RDi?
    • How do I convince my long-term developers to use RDi?

    This is a unique, online opportunity to hear how you can get more out of RDi.

     

  • Node.js on IBM i Webinar Series Pt. 2: Setting Up Your Development Tools

    Profound Logic Software, Inc.Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. In Part 2, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Attend this webinar to learn:

    • Different tools to develop Node.js applications on IBM i
    • Debugging Node.js
    • The basics of Git and tools to help those new to it
    • Using NodeRun.com as a pre-built development environment

     

     

  • Inside the Integrated File System (IFS)

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericDuring this webinar, you’ll learn basic tips, helpful tools, and integrated file system commands—including WRKLNK—for managing your IFS directories and Access Client Solutions (ACS). We’ll answer your most pressing IFS questions, including:

    • What is stored inside my IFS directories?
    • How do I monitor the IFS?
    • How do I replicate the IFS or back it up?
    • How do I secure the IFS?

    Understanding what the integrated file system is and how to work with it must be a critical part of your systems management plans for IBM i.

     

  • Expert Tips for IBM i Security: Beyond the Basics

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

    Don't miss this chance to take your knowledge of IBM i security beyond the basics.

     

     

  • 5 IBM i Security Quick Wins

    SB PowerTech WC GenericIn today’s threat landscape, upper management is laser-focused on cybersecurity. You need to make progress in securing your systems—and make it fast.
    There’s no shortage of actions you could take, but what tactics will actually deliver the results you need? And how can you find a security strategy that fits your budget and time constraints?
    Join top IBM i security expert Robin Tatam as he outlines the five fastest and most impactful changes you can make to strengthen IBM i security this year.
    Your system didn’t become unsecure overnight and you won’t be able to turn it around overnight either. But quick wins are possible with IBM i security, and Robin Tatam will show you how to achieve them.

  • How to Meet the Newest Encryption Requirements on IBM i

    SB PowerTech WC GenericA growing number of compliance mandates require sensitive data to be encrypted. But what kind of encryption solution will satisfy an auditor and how can you implement encryption on IBM i? Watch this on-demand webinar to find out how to meet today’s most common encryption requirements on IBM i. You’ll also learn:

    • Why disk encryption isn’t enough
    • What sets strong encryption apart from other solutions
    • Important considerations before implementing encryption

     

     

  • Security Bulletin: Malware Infection Discovered on IBM i Server!

    SB PowerTech WC GenericMalicious programs can bring entire businesses to their knees—and IBM i shops are not immune. It’s critical to grasp the true impact malware can have on IBM i and the network that connects to it. Attend this webinar to gain a thorough understanding of the relationships between:

    • Viruses, native objects, and the integrated file system (IFS)
    • Power Systems and Windows-based viruses and malware
    • PC-based anti-virus scanning versus native IBM i scanning

    There are a number of ways you can minimize your exposure to viruses. IBM i security expert Sandi Moore explains the facts, including how to ensure you're fully protected and compliant with regulations such as PCI.

     

     

  • Fight Cyber Threats with IBM i Encryption

    SB PowerTech WC GenericCyber attacks often target mission-critical servers, and those attack strategies are constantly changing. To stay on top of these threats, your cybersecurity strategies must evolve, too. In this session, IBM i security expert Robin Tatam provides a quick recap of IBM i security basics and guides you through some advanced cybersecurity techniques that can help you take data protection to the next level. Robin will cover:

    • Reducing the risk posed by special authorities
    • Establishing object-level security
    • Overseeing user actions and data access

     

     

     

  • 10 Practical IBM i Security Tips for Surviving Covid-19 and Working From Home

    SB PowerTech WC GenericNow that many organizations have moved to a work from home model, security concerns have risen.

    During this session Carol Woodbury will discuss the issues that the world is currently seeing such as increased malware attacks and then provide practical actions you can take to both monitor and protect your IBM i during this challenging time.

     

  • How to Transfer IBM i Data to Microsoft Excel

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_Generic3 easy ways to get IBM i data into Excel every time
    There’s an easy, more reliable way to import your IBM i data to Excel? It’s called Sequel. During this webinar, our data access experts demonstrate how you can simplify the process of getting data from multiple sources—including Db2 for i—into Excel. Watch to learn how to:

    • Download your IBM i data to Excel in a single step
    • Deliver data to business users in Excel via email or a scheduled job
    • Access IBM i data directly using the Excel add-in in Sequel

    Make 2020 the year you finally see your data clearly, quickly, and securely. Start by giving business users the ability to access crucial business data from IBM i the way they want it—in Microsoft Excel.

     

     

  • HA Alternatives: MIMIX Is Not Your Only Option on IBM i

    SB_HelpSystems_WC_GenericIn this recorded webinar, our experts introduce you to the new HA transition technology available with our Robot HA software. You’ll learn how to:

    • Transition your rules from MIMIX (if you’re happy with them)
    • Simplify your day-to-day activities around high availability
    • Gain back time in your work week
    • Make your CEO happy about reducing IT costs

    Don’t stick with a legacy high availability solution that makes you uncomfortable when transitioning to something better can be simple, safe, and cost-effective.

     

     

  • Node Webinar Series Pt. 1: The World of Node.js on IBM i

    SB Profound WC GenericHave you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.
    Part 1 will teach you what Node.js is, why it's a great option for IBM i shops, and how to take advantage of the ecosystem surrounding Node.
    In addition to background information, our Director of Product Development Scott Klement will demonstrate applications that take advantage of the Node Package Manager (npm).
    Watch Now.

  • The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security

    SB Profound WC Generic The Biggest Mistakes in IBM i Security
    Here’s the harsh reality: cybersecurity pros have to get their jobs right every single day, while an attacker only has to succeed once to do incredible damage.
    Whether that’s thousands of exposed records, millions of dollars in fines and legal fees, or diminished share value, it’s easy to judge organizations that fall victim. IBM i enjoys an enviable reputation for security, but no system is impervious to mistakes.
    Join this webinar to learn about the biggest errors made when securing a Power Systems server.
    This knowledge is critical for ensuring integrity of your application data and preventing you from becoming the next Equifax. It’s also essential for complying with all formal regulations, including SOX, PCI, GDPR, and HIPAA
    Watch Now.

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  • Backup and Recovery on IBM i: Your Strategy for the Unexpected

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates the routine tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:
    - Simplified backup procedures
    - Easy data encryption
    - Save media management
    - Guided restoration
    - Seamless product integration
    Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Try the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Manage IBM i Messages by Exception with Robot

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Managing messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events?
    Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated message management
    - Tailored notifications and automatic escalation
    - System-wide control of your IBM i partitions
    - Two-way system notifications from your mobile device
    - Seamless product integration
    Try the Robot Message Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Easiest Way to Save Money? Stop Printing IBM i Reports

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing.
    Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

    - Automated report distribution
    - View online without delay
    - Browser interface to make notes
    - Custom retention capabilities
    - Seamless product integration
    Rerun another report? Never again. Try the Robot Report Management Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • Hassle-Free IBM i Operations around the Clock

    SB HelpSystems SC 5413For over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i.
    Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:
    - Automated batch, interactive, and cross-platform scheduling
    - Event-driven dependency processing
    - Centralized monitoring and reporting
    - Audit log and ready-to-use reports
    - Seamless product integration
    Scale your software, not your staff. Try the Robot Job Scheduling Solution FREE for 30 days.

  • ACO MONITOR Manages your IBM i 24/7 and Notifies You When Your IBM i Needs Assistance!

    SB DDL Systems 5429More than a paging system - ACO MONITOR is a complete systems management solution for your Power Systems running IBM i. ACO MONITOR manages your Power System 24/7, uses advanced technology (like two-way messaging) to notify on-duty support personnel, and responds to complex problems before they reach critical status.

    ACO MONITOR is proven technology and is capable of processing thousands of mission-critical events daily. The software is pre-configured, easy to install, scalable, and greatly improves data center efficiency.